天游平台

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            ICINCO 2012 Abstracts


            Area 1 - Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization

            Full Papers
            Paper Nr: 61
            Title:

            Emotion Recognition of Violin Music based on Strings Music Theory for Mascot Robot System

            Authors:

            Z.-T. Liu, Z. Mu, L.-F. Chen, P. Q. Le, C. Fatichah, Y.-K. Tang, M. L. Tangel, F. Yan, K. Ohnishi, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Adachi, J.-J. Lu, T.-Y. Li, Y. Yamazaki, F.-Y. Dong and K. Hirota

            Abstract: Emotion recognition of violin music is proposed based on strings music theory, where the emotional state of violin music is expressed by Affinity-Pleasure-Arousal emotion space. Besides the music features from audio processing, three features (i.e., left-hand feature, right-hand feature, and dynamics) with regard to both composition and performance of violin music, are extracted to improve the emotion recognition of violin music. To demonstrate the validity of this proposal, a dataset composing of 120 pieces of author-performed violin music with six primary emotion categories is established, by which the experimental results of emotion recognition using Support Vector Regression report overall recognition accuracy of 86.67%. The proposal could be an integral part for analyzing the communication atmosphere with background music, or be used by a music recommendation system for various occasions.

            Paper Nr: 64
            Title:

            Fuzzy Control of a Hybrid Renewable Power System based on Real-time Matlab-PLC Communication through OPC

            Authors:

            Isaías González Pérez, A. José Calderón Godoy and Manuel Calderón Godoy

            Abstract: This paper presents the design of a fuzzy logic controller to operate an electrolyzer of an experimental test-bed of hybrid wind-solar system with hydrogen storage. This controller runs in Simulink and is linked through Open Process Control interface with the industrial programmable logic controller responsible of global management of the installation. Real-time data exchange and control of the process variables have been successfully achieved and obtained results under real conditions are presented.

            Paper Nr: 77
            Title:

            Visual Servoing Path-planning with Spheres

            Authors:

            Tiantian Shen and Graziano Chesi

            Abstract: This paper proposes a path-planning approach for visual servoing in the case where the observed object features are points and spheres. Two main situations are considered. In the first situation, it is supposed that at least two points and at least a sphere are observed. In the second situation, it is supposed that at least three spheres are observed. The problem consists of planning a trajectory in order to ensure the convergence of the robot end-point to the desired location while satisfying visibility and workspace constraints, in particular including occlusion and collision avoidance. A solution based on polynomial parametrizations is proposed in order to determine a feasible path in the 3D space, and such a path is then followed by tracking its image projection through image-based visual servoing. Some simulation results illustrate the proposed approach.

            Paper Nr: 80
            Title:

            Data-based Tuning of PI Controllers for Vertical Three-Tank Systems

            Authors:

            Mircea-Bogdan R?dac, Bogdan-Alexandru Bigher, Radu-Emil Precup, Emil M. Petriu, Claudia-Adina Drago?, Stefan Preitl and Alexandra-Iulia Stînean

            Abstract: This paper suggests the application of Iterative Feedback Tuning (IFT) as a data-based control technique to parameter tuning of PI controllers dedicated to vertical three-tank systems. The level control in the first two tanks is carried out using a multivariable control system structure which consists of two control loops, one for each level. The two PI controllers in these control loops are first tuned in terms of the Modulus Optimum method. New IFT algorithms are proposed in order to ensure the performance improvement of level control systems by means of six steps assisted by experiments. The experimental results show the strong performance improvement obtained after few iterations of IFT algorithms in terms of a model reference tracking optimization problem.

            Paper Nr: 123
            Title:

            Differential Evolution in Parameter Identification - Fuel Cell as an Example

            Authors:

            Aki Sorsa, Anssi Koskenniemi and Kauko Leiviskä

            Abstract: Evolutionary algorithms are optimization methods and their basic idea lies in biological evolution. They suit well for large and complex optimization problems. In this study, differential evolution is applied for identifying the parameters of the nonlinear fuel cell model. Different versions of the algorithm are used to compare the genetic operators they use. One problem with the studied algorithms is also in defining the internal parameters that regulate the development of the population. In this paper, entropy is used for defining the population size and other parameters are tuned using recommendations from the literature and by trial-and-error. The results show that DE/rand-to-best/1/bin is the most suitable algorithm for the studied problem. Selection of the crossover operator has no considerable effect on the results. The results also show that the studied identification problem has a lot of local minima that are very close to each other that makes the optimization problem even more challenging.

            Paper Nr: 133
            Title:

            A Proposal of Multiobjective Fuzzy Regulator Design for State Space Nonlinear Systems

            Authors:

            Rafael J. M. Santos and Ginalber L. O. Serra

            Abstract: This paper proposes a Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy regulator design methodology for nonlinear dynamic systems. The Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and Pole Placement (PP) techniques are combined in a TS fuzzy structure in order to guarantee an optimal controller with satisfactory transient response based on poles allocated properly. The definition and analysis of the multiobjective feasible region, considering the influence of the desired poles on the weighting matrices Q and R in the quadratic cost function, are presented. Lyapunov based stability analysis and simulations results on fuzzy regulator design for a robotic manipulator illustrates the efficience of the proposed methodology.

            Paper Nr: 138
            Title:

            Rotor Speed Sensor Fault Detection in Induction Motors

            Authors:

            Riccardo Marino, Stefano Scalzi, Patrizio Tomei and Cristiano Maria Verrelli

            Abstract: The problem of detecting a speed sensor fault in induction motor applications with load torque and rotor/stator resistances uncertainties is addressed. It is shown that in typical operating conditions involving constant rotor speed and flux modulus and non-zero load torque, a constant non-zero (sufficiently large) difference between the measured speed and the actual speed may be on-line identified by an adaptive flux observer which incorporates a convergent rotor resistance identifier and relies on the measured rotor speed and stator currents/voltages.

            Paper Nr: 225
            Title:

            Visual Anomaly Detection in Production Plants

            Authors:

            Alexander Maier, Tim Tack and Oliver Niggemann

            Abstract: This paper presents a novel method for visual anomaly detection in production plants. Since the complexity of the plants and the number of signals that have to be monitored by the operator grows, there is a need of tools to overcome the information overflow. The human is highly able to recognize irregularities in figures. More than 80% of the perceived information is captured visually. The approach proposed in this paper exploits this fact and subjects data to make the operator able to find anomalies in the displayed figures. In three steps the operator is lead from the visualization of the normal behavior over the anomaly detection and the localization of the faulty module to the anomalous signal.

            Paper Nr: 230
            Title:

            Global Optimal Solution to SLAM Problem with Unknown Initial Estimates

            Authors:

            Usman Qayyum and Jonghyuk Kim

            Abstract: The paper presents a practical approach for finding the globally optimal solution to SLAM. Traditional methods are based upon local optimization based strategies and are highly susceptible to local minima due to non-convex nature of the SLAM problem. We employed the nonlinear global optimization based approach to SLAM by exploiting the theoretical limit on the numbers of local minima. Our work is not reliant on good initial guess, whereas existing approaches in SLAM literature assume good starting point to avoid local minima problem. The paper presents experimental results on different datasets to validate the robustness of the approach, finding the global basin of attraction with unknown initial guess.

            Paper Nr: 248
            Title:

            Spacecrafts' Control Systems Effective Variants Choice with Self-configuring Genetic Algorithm

            Authors:

            Eugene Semenkin and Maria Semenkina

            Abstract: The work of the spacecraft control system is modeled with Markov chains. Small and large models for the technological and command-programming control contours are developed. The way of the calculation of the control contour effectiveness indicators is described. Special self-configuring genetic algorithm that requires no settings determination and parameter tuning is proposed for choosing effective variants of spacecraft control system. The high performance of the suggested algorithm is demonstrated through experiments with test problems and then is validated by the solving hard optimization problems.

            Paper Nr: 306
            Title:

            Robust Arbitrary Reference Command Tracking with Application to Hydraulic Actuators

            Authors:

            M. G. Skarpetis, F. N. Koumboulis and A. S. Ntellis

            Abstract: In this paper a robust tracking controller is proposed in order to track arbitrary reference signals in the presence of same type disturbance signals. The robust tracking controller is based on the well known Internal Model Principle appropriately modified with a Hurwitz invariability technique. The controller parameters are computed using a finite step algorithm. Solvability conditions are derived. The proposed controller is successfully applied to a hydraulic actuator uncertain model including uncertain parameters arising from changes of the operating conditions and other physical reasons. Simulation results for all the expected range of the actuator model uncertainties are presented indicating the satisfactory performance of the robust controller in the presence of external disturbances.

            Short Papers
            Paper Nr: 10
            Title:

            Multivariable Discrete Time Repetitive Control System

            Authors:

            Hammoud Saari and Bernard Caron

            Abstract: This paper deals with an iterative learning control law for multivariable systems. The desired inputs are supposed to be known and periodic. The principle of the control is to make outputs as close as possible to desired inputs at each new period. After the design of multivariable repetitive controller, we give the stability condition of the algorithm and some simulation results.

            Paper Nr: 20
            Title:

            Reconstruction-based Set-valued Observer - A New Perspective for Fault Detection within Uncertain Systems

            Authors:

            Letellier Clément, Chafouk Houcine and Hoblos Ghaleb

            Abstract: This paper presents an extension of a particular type of observer called the Set-valued Observer; this kind of observer is very well suited for uncertain fault detection. But some limitations restrict its use. Indeed, all the sensors are needed to observe the state and as a consequence this method does not allow fault detection when some sensor information is not available. Other work has focused on the well-known Luenberger Observer applied to uncertain systems; but once again, this option is limited. Indeed, it is difficult to converge the algorithm because of the wrapping effect induced by recursivity. Here a new approach is proposed combining the power of the two algorithms. The Luenberger Observer coupled with the Set-Valued Observer allows us to reconstruct the states without divergence. This combination is a substantial contribution for fault detection within uncertain systems.

            Paper Nr: 23
            Title:

            Risk Prediction of a Behavior-based Adhesion Control Network for Online Safety Analysis of Wall-climbing Robots

            Authors:

            Daniel Schmidt and Karsten Berns

            Abstract: Risk analysis in combination with terrain classification is a common approach in mobile robotics to adapt robot control to surface conditions. But for climbing robots it is hard to specify, how the robotic system and especially the adhesion is affected by different surfaces and environmental features. This paper will introduce the climbing robot CROMSCI using negative pressure adhesion via multiple chambers, adaptive inflatable sealings and an omnidirectional drive system. It presents the used behavior-based control network which allows the balancing of adhesion force, but fails in extreme situations. Therefore, a risk prediction has been developed which evaluates behavioral meta-data and allows an estimation of current hazards caused by the environment. This prediction is used to perform evasive actions to prevent the robot from falling down.

            Paper Nr: 75
            Title:

            Nonlinear Model Validation of an Internal Combustion Engine with Few Sensors

            Authors:

            Agustín Trobiani, Alvaro Agüero, Andrés García and Osvaldo Agamennnoni

            Abstract: This paper presents a nonlinear modeling of a small combustion engine and its validation. The salient characteristic of the procedure is the fewness on the amount of sensors, in fact using only three commercial sensors available for other combustion motors, an error less than five percent was obtained during the identification process. As another important point, the control of the combustion engine replacing the original carburetor for a commercial injector using the same hardware utilized for identification (this time reprogrammed) made possible the control of the motor in closed loop forming in this way a cheap ECU.

            Paper Nr: 76
            Title:

            A Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Grasp Planning Problem

            Authors:

            Chiraz Walha, Hala Bezine and Adel M. Alimi

            Abstract: Computing a set of contact points between a robotic hand and an object in order to fulfill some criteria is the main problem of the grasp planning. An automatic grasp planning can produce a set of joint angles defining a configuration of the robotic hand. The huge number of solutions that satisfy a good grasp is the main difficulty of such a planner. In this paper, we represent the grasp planning problem as an optimization problem and we propose a new algorithm based on a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique. To generate the positions of the fingertips, the kinematic of the hand is modeled. Therefore, a simple PSO algorithm is described to optimize the workspace of the operating hand based on a quality of measure of the grasp. The simulation results support the effectiveness of our approach.

            Paper Nr: 78
            Title:

            Adaptive Gravitational Search Algorithm for PI-fuzzy Controller Tuning

            Authors:

            Radu-Codru? David, Radu-Emil Precup, Emil M. Petriu, Mircea-Bogdan R?dac, Constantin Purcaru, Claudia-Adina Drago? and Stefan Preitl

            Abstract: This paper proposes an adaptive Gravitational Search Algorithm (aGSA) focused on tuning of Takagi-Sugeno PI-fuzzy controllers (T-S PI-FCs). The algorithm adapts two depreciation laws of the gravitational constant to the iteration index, a parameter in the weighted sum of all forces exerted from the other agents to the iteration index, and the reset at each stage of agents’ worst fitnesses and positions to their best values. Two fuzzy logic blocks carry out the adaptation of the ratios of exploration runs and explanation runs using the ratio between the minimum and maximum Popov sums as an input variable. A tuning method for T-S PI-FCs dedicated to a class of nonlinear servo systems with an integral component and is offered, and T-S PI-FCs with reduced process gain sensitivity are tuned. A case study and digital simulation results illustrate the optimal tuning of a T-S PI-FC for the position control of a laboratory servo system.

            Paper Nr: 86
            Title:

            Modeling and Active Vibration Control of a Smart Structure

            Authors:

            Nader Ghareeb and Rüdiger Schmidt

            Abstract: Active vibration control of flexible structures has gained much attention in the last decades. The major components of any active vibration control system are the mechanical structure suseptible to vibration, sensor(s) to perceive it, actuator(s) to counteract the influence of disturbances causing vibration and finally, the controller responsible for the generation of appropriate control signals. In this paper, a Lyapunov function controller and a strain rate feedback controller (SRF) are used to attentuate the vibrations of a cantilivered smart beam excited by its first eigenmode. A super element (SE) with a finite number of degrees of freedom (DOF) is derived from the modified and damped finite element (FE) model. The state-space (SS) equations of the same model are also extracted. Controllers are applied to the SE and SS models and results are presented and compared.

            Paper Nr: 96
            Title:

            Development of Robust Learning Control and Application to Motion Control

            Authors:

            Meng-Shiun Tsai, Chung-Liang Yen and Hong-Tzong Yau

            Abstract: In this paper, the error dynamic equation of the ILC algorithm is derived with consideration of parameter uncertainties and noise. The H∞ frame work is utilized using the derived error dynamics to design the robust learning controller. The proper learning gain is designed based on an optimization process to ensure that both tracking performance and convergence condition can be achieved. Simulation and experiments are conducted to validate the robust learning algorithm and the system is stable ever under high payload uncertainty.

            Paper Nr: 97
            Title:

            Automated Design of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems - A Framework based on a Genetic Algorithm and Discrete System Simulation

            Authors:

            J. Padayachee and G. Bright

            Abstract: The concept of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMSs) was formulated due to the global necessity for production systems that are able to economically evolve according to changes in markets and products. Technologies and design methods are under development to enable RMSs to exhibit transformable system layouts, reconfigurable processes, cells and machines. Existing manufacturing design systems do not encapsulate concepts of reconfigurability in design mechanisms to obtain optimal RMS configurations. This paper presents a framework for a resource allocation and shop floor design system within the context of RMSs. The framework focuses on the automated generation of shop floor configurations for systems with high product variety and shared resources. The DEVS, (Discrete Event System Specification), formalism is used to model reconfigurable equipment and simulate manufacturing processes. The “design engine” in the proposed framework, implements a genetic algorithm for the assembly, evaluation and optimisation of candidate shop floor configurations and their corresponding DEVS models.

            Paper Nr: 107
            Title:

            Evolutionary Symbiotic Feature Selection for Email Spam Detection

            Authors:

            Paulo Cortez, Rui Vaz, Miguel Rocha, Miguel Rio and Pedro Sousa

            Abstract: This work presents a symbiotic filtering approach enabling the exchange of relevant word features among different users in order to improve local anti-spam filters. The local spam filtering is based on a Content-Based Filtering strategy, where word frequencies are fed into a Naive Bayes learner. Several Evolutionary Algorithms are explored for feature selection, including the proposed symbiotic exchange of the most relevant features among different users. The experiments were conducted using a novel corpus based on the well known Enron datasets mixed with recent spam. The obtained results show that the symbiotic approach is competitive.

            Paper Nr: 110
            Title:

            Predictive Data Reduction in Wireless Sensor Networks using Selective Filtering

            Authors:

            David James McCorrie, Elena Gaura, Keith Burnham and Nigel Poole

            Abstract: In a wireless sensor network, transmissions consume a large portion of a node’s energy budget. Data reduction is generally acknowledged as an effective means to reduce the number of network transmissions, thereby increasing the overall network lifetime. This paper builds on the Spanish Inquisition Protocol, to further reduce transmissions in a single-hop wireless sensor system aimed at a gas turbine engine exhaust gas temperature (EGT) monitoring application. A new method for selective filtering of sensed data based on state identification has been devised for accurate state predictions. Low transmission rates are achieved even when significant temperature step changes occur. A simulator was implemented to generate flight temperature profiles similar to those encountered in real-life, which enabled tuning and evaluation of the algorithm. The results, summarized over 280 simulated flights of variable duration (from approximately 58 minutes to 14 hours) show an average reduction in the number of transmissions by 95%, 99.8% and 91% in the take-off, cruise and landing phases respectively, compared to transmissions encountered by a sense-and-send system sampling at the same rate. The algorithm generates an average error of 0:11 +/- 0:04 °C over a 927 °C range.

            Paper Nr: 148
            Title:

            Optimal Control Strategy of NG Piston Engine as a DG Unit Obtained by an Utilization of Artificial Neural Network

            Authors:

            Jaroslaw Milewski, Lukasz Szablowski, Jerzy Kuta and Wojciech Bujalski

            Abstract: The paper presents a control strategy concept of a piston engine fueled by Natural Gas as a DG unit obtained by using an Artificial Neural Network. The control strategy is based on several factors and directs the operation of the unit in the context of changes occurring in the market, while taking into account the operating characteristics of the unit. The control strategy is defined by an objective function: for example, work at maximum profit, maximum service life, etc. The results of simulations of the piston engine as a DG unit at chosen loads are presented. Daily changes in the prices of fuel and electricity are factored into the simulations.

            Paper Nr: 149
            Title:

            Hardware on-Board Implementation of a Possible Solution to Introduce UAVs into Non Segregated Areas

            Authors:

            Sergio Taraglio, Vincenzo Nanni and Damiano Taurino

            Abstract: The implementation of a distributed control algorithm for the safe flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in traffic conditions in an embedded processor unit is presented. Details on the implementation are given. The control algorithm is designed in order to avoid separation infringements with aircraft in the neighbourhood. The algorithm is grounded on Satisficing Game Theory and supplies manoeuvres aimed at providing separation distance among aircraft. Some results of simulated flight trials of UAVs in segregated and non segregated areas are reviewed. Some experiments on the capability of the embedded algorithm to pilot a simulated UAV in different traffic condition are presented.

            Paper Nr: 153
            Title:

            A Hybrid Metaheuristic Approach to Solve the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

            Authors:

            Arthur T. Gómez, Cristiano Galafassi and Leonardo Chiwiacowsky

            Abstract: This paper addresses the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows, with constraints related to the vehicle capacity and time windows for customer service. To solve this problem two different metaheuristics are used: Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithms. Based on these techniques a hybrid algorithm is developed. The main goal is the development of a Hybrid Algorithm focused on the Vehicle Routing Problem which uses the intensification power of the Tabu Search and the diversification power of the Genetic Algorithms, in order to obtain good quality solutions without compromising the computational time. In the experiments are combined policies of diversification and intensification in Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm to verify the efficiency and robustness of the proposed hybrid algorithm. Finally, the results are compared with the best heuristic and exact methods results found in the literature. The Hybrid Algorithm here proposed shows efficiency and robustness, with several optimal solutions achieved.

            Paper Nr: 166
            Title:

            Neuro-fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for a Two Link Flexible Robot

            Authors:

            Khedoudja Kherraz, Mustapha Hamerlain and Nouara Achour

            Abstract: In most robotic applications, trajectory tracking control and vibration suppression in flexible link manipulator is a recurring problem, due to the unknown nonlinearities and strong coupling often caused by the presence of flexibility in the links. In order to solve this problem, a new sliding mode controller using neural networks and fuzzy logic is presented in this paper. The stability of the proposed controller is proved with the Lyapunov function method. The neural network is used to compensate the highly nonlinear system uncertainties. The fuzzy logic is used to eliminate the chattering effect caused by the robust conventional sliding mode control. The effectiveness of this control system will be compared to the performance obtained with a second order sliding mode control which is the super twisting algorithm. Comparative simulations show the superiority of the proposed controller regarding the second order sliding mode controller and confirm its robustness with bounded disturbance and its ability to suppress the flexible link manipulator vibrations.

            Paper Nr: 167
            Title:

            Performance Shaping through Cost Cumulants and Neural Networks-based Series Expansion

            Authors:

            Bei Kang, Chukwuemeka Aduba and Chang-Hee Won

            Abstract: The performance shaping method is addressed as a statistical optimal control problem. In statistical control, we shape the distribution of the cost function by minimizing n-th order cost cumulants. The n-th cost cumulant, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is derived as the necessary condition for the optimality. The proposed method provides an approach to control a higher order cost cumulant for stochastic systems, and generalizes the traditional linear-quadratic-Gaussian and Risk-Sensitive control methods. This allows the cost performance shaping via the cost cumulants. Moreover, the solution of general n-th cost cumulant control is provided by numerically solving the HJB equations using neural network method. The results of this paper are demonstrated through a satellite attitude control example.

            Paper Nr: 180
            Title:

            Distributed Control System for Crystal Growth

            Authors:

            A. E. Kokh, V. A. Vlezko and K. A. Kokh

            Abstract: Distributed system for control over the crystal growth process is presented. The main advantages of the system are its low cost, ability to recover after power failure, an application of standard ISaGRAF software environment and available low-power PC-Controller. One of the option of the system is an ability to control symmetry and dynamics of the heat filed. This option is the key factor for the progress in growth of nonlinear optical LBO crystal.

            Paper Nr: 189
            Title:

            Multi-Agent System for Adaptation of Distributed Control System

            Authors:

            Dariusz Choiński and Micha? Senik

            Abstract: A solution based on Multi-Agent Systems properties has been proposed. The presented structure is designed to Distributed Control System behaviour abstraction and encapsulation of the technical characteristics of its individual elements such as OPC (OLE for process control) servers. An ontology facilitating the creation of user interface for Multi-Agent System environment has been proposed. This ontology is based on a set of concepts and symbols understandable for the operator and the knowledge defining the hierarchical structure of object. Presented solution is not only a conception but it is a real, cross platform implementation based on the both Java and .Net programming platform. It practically shows how new programming solutions, tools and methodologies can be integrated and reused to solve real life, practical automation system problems.

            Paper Nr: 218
            Title:

            A Hybrid Algorithm using Metaheuristics Applied to H.264/AVC Video Encoder

            Authors:

            Arthur Tórgo Gómez and Iris Correa C. Linck

            Abstract: This paper focuses on the study and the analysis of the dynamic relationship among six parameters of the H.264/AVC video encoder, that are: frame rate, bit rate, quantization parameter for I slice, B slice, and P slice, and the number of B slices in the GOP (Group of Pictures). For this study, it was developed and implemented a hybrid algorithm called Simulator of Metaheuristics applied to a CODEC (SMC). The SMC algorithm consists of two metaheuristics that are Tabu Search and Genetic Algorithm. It tries to find the best configuration of the studied parameters in order to obtain a good quality and compression of the encoded video in the H.264/AVC standard. The SMC algorithm uses a maximization objective function as an objective evaluation method to reach the proposed goals.

            Paper Nr: 228
            Title:

            Optimal Distributed Controller Synthesis for Chain Structures - Applications to Vehicle Formations

            Authors:

            Omid Khorsand, Assad Alam and Ather Gattami

            Abstract: We consider optimal distributed controller synthesis for an interconnected system subject to communication constraints, in linear quadratic settings. Motivated by the problem of finite heavy duty vehicle platooning, we study systems composed of interconnected subsystems over a chain graph. By decomposing the system into orthogonal modes, the cost function can be separated into individual components. Thereby, derivation of the optimal controllers in state-space follows immediately. The optimal controllers are evaluated under the practical setting of heavy duty vehicle platooning with communication constraints. It is shown that the performance can be significantly improved by adding a few communication links. The results show that the proposed optimal distributed controller outperforms a suboptimal controller in terms of control input energy.

            Paper Nr: 231
            Title:

            Broken Bar Fault Detection based on Set Membership Identification for Three Phase Induction Motors

            Authors:

            Mohammed Obaid Mustafa, George Nikolakopoulos, Thomas Gustafsson and Basil M. Saied

            Abstract: This article presents a fault detection scheme for the case of a broken bar occurrence in a three phase induction motor. The proposed scheme relies on Set Membership Identification (SMI) and novel proposed boundary violation rules for the identified motor’s parameters. The model of the three phase induction motor is being transformed into an equivalent two phase model, described in the q?d space, for both the normal and the faulty case. By the utilization of the SMI technique, the simplified equivalent model of the induction motor is being identified during the steady state operation (non–fault case), while at the same time safety bounds for the identified variables are being provided, based on an a priori defined corrupting additive noise. On the event of a fault, specific fault detection conditions are being proposed that can capture the specific type of a broken bar fault. The proposed conditions depend on: a) abnormal parameter jumps, and b) rapid changes in the volume of the bounding uncertainty, which is being formulated either by ellipsoids or orthotopes. Detailed analysis of the proposed approach as also extended simulation results are being presented that prove the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

            Paper Nr: 246
            Title:

            Multi-device Power-saving - An Investigation in Energy Consumption Optimisation

            Authors:

            Jean-Marc Andreoli and Guillaume Bouchard

            Abstract: We are interested here in the problem of optimising the energy consumption of a set of service offering devices. Our target is a printing device infrastructure as typically found in a medium or large office, where all the devices are connected to the network, and clients can submit jobs to individual devices through that network. We formulate a cost optimisation problem to find a trade-off between the energy consumption of the infrastructure and the cost of allocating jobs to devices. The latter cost results from the potential gap between the expectation of the clients and the quality of the service delivered by the devices. We present a model of some of the typical constraints occurring in such a system. We then present a method to solve the optimisation problem under these constraints, and conclude the paper with some experimental results.

            Paper Nr: 250
            Title:

            Statistical Models for Emotion Recognition using Facial Expression Analisys

            Authors:

            Hernan F. Garcia, Augusto E. Salazar and Álvaro A. Orozco

            Abstract: Emotion recognition is one of the latest challenges in intelligent human/computer communication. In this paper we present our framework for emotional state classification based on Ekman’s study and facial expression analysis. Facial Action Coding System (FACS) on facial features tracking, based on Active Appearance Model is presented for facial expression analysis of features extracted from the parametric model Candide3. We describe the characterization methodology from parametric model to obtain the best set points of facial feature which improve the emotion recognition process. Also quantitatively evaluated the accuracy of both feature detection and estimation of the parameters associated with facial expressions, analyzing its robustness to variations in pose and local variations in the regions of interest. Then, a metodology of emotion characterization is introduced to perform the recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively detect the different facial expressions. Also this approach outperforms the conventional approaches for emotion recognition obtaining high performance results in the estimation of emotion present in a determined subject. The model used and characterization methodology showed high accuracy to detect the emotion type in 95.6% of the cases.

            Paper Nr: 279
            Title:

            New Robust Controller Synthesis Optimization Methodology under Six Sigma Constraint

            Authors:

            J. Frechard, D. Knittel and J. Renaud

            Abstract: Industrial systems usually contain uncertain parameters. These uncertainties come from lack of knowledge of physical phenomena or from evaluation difficulties. The stochastic behaviour of these parameters have to be taken into account during the design process of industrial systems. To tackle with these uncertainties, the Design for Multi-objective Six Sigma method is used. This method permits to fix six sigma constraint and it is applied on the synthesis of web tension controller for an industrial large-scale roll-to-roll system. The key idea is to synthesize the controller in frequency domain by Hinfinity synthesis. Then the six sigma constraint is fixed on output web tension in time domain. The robust controller synthesis is then compared with standard Hinfinity synthesis approach. This paper presents for the first time a controller synthesis including six sigma constraints.

            Paper Nr: 297
            Title:

            Design and Experimentation of a Neural Network Controller for a Spherical Parallel Robot

            Authors:

            Donatello Tina, Luca Carbonari and Massimo Callegari

            Abstract: The paper deals with a neural network control for the gravity compensation of a parallel kinematics robot. The network has been designed in a simulation environment then it has been implemented in robot’s controller by using an FPGA device that is part of an embedded system. After the training phase, several experiments have been performed on the prototype manipulator and the related datasets have been collected and elaborated. In the end, a comparative analysis has shown the improved performance of the neural network controller with respect to the inverse dynamics one, mainly due to the well-known difficulties in deriving explicit models of friction and play in the joints.

            Paper Nr: 307
            Title:

            A Stochastic Queueing Model for Multi-robot Task Allocation

            Authors:

            Angelica Muñoz-Meléndez, Pritviraj Dasgupta and William Lenagh

            Abstract: A central problem in multi-robot systems is to solve the multi-robot task allocation problem. In this paper, a decentralized stochastic model based on stochastic queueing processes is applied for an application of collective detection of underground landmines where the robots are not told the distribution or number of landmines to be encountered in the environment. Repeat demands of inspection in the environment to ensure the accuracy of robot findings are necessary in this application. The proposed model is based on the estimation of a stochastic queue of pending demands that represents the alternatives of action for a robot and is used to negotiate possible conflicts with other robots. We compare and contrast this method with a decentralized greedy approach based on the distance towards the sites where inspection demands are required. Experimental results obtained using simulated robots in the Webots c environment are presented. The performance of robots is measured in terms of two metrics, completion time and distance traveled for processing a demand. Robots applying the stochastic queueing model obtained competitive results.

            Paper Nr: 325
            Title:

            Implementation of Cognitive Chips in Machining Error Attenuation

            Authors:

            Maki K. Rashid

            Abstract: Machining is a complex process that requires a high degree of precision with tight geometrical tolerance and surface finish. Those are confronted by the existence of vibration in the turning machine tool. Overcoming a micro level vibration of a cutting tool using smart materials can save old machines and enhance development in designing new generations of machine tools. Using smart materials to resolve such problems represent one of the challenges in this area. As a continuation from previous work for the transient solution for a tool tip displacement using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique that was implemented for smart material activation to compensate for radial disturbing cutting forces. A Fuzzy algorithm is developed to control the actuator voltage level to improve dynamic performance. Such technique together with the finite element method as dynamic model proved a great successfulness. To implement such results in real life industrial system we may use chips that mimic human brain as developed recently by IBM which is intelligent to learn through incidents, find patterns, generate ideas and understand the outcomes to reduce tool vibration error.

            Paper Nr: 333
            Title:

            An Optimization Method for Training Generalized Hidden Markov Model based on Generalized Jensen Inequality

            Authors:

            Y. M. Hu, F. Y. Xie, B. Wu, Y. Cheng, G. F. Jia, Y. Wang and M. Y. Li

            Abstract: Recently a generalized hidden Markov model (GHMM) was proposed for solving the problems of aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty in engineering application. In GHMM, the aleraory uncertainty is derived by the probability measure while epistemic uncertainty is modelled by the generalized interval. Given any finite observation sequence as training data, the problem of training GHMM is often encountered. In this paper, an optimization method for training GHMM, as a generalization of Baum-Welch algorithm, is proposed. The generalized convex and concave functions based on the generalized interval are proposed for inferring the generalized Jensen inequality. With generalized Baum-Welch’s auxiliary function and generalized Jensen inequality, similar to the multiple observations training, the GHMM parameters are estimated and updated by the lower and the bound observation sequences. A set of training equations and re-estimated formulas have been derived by optimizing the objective function. Similar to multiple observations (expectation maximization) EM algorithm, this method guarantees the local maximum of the lower and the upper bound and hence the convergence of the GHMM training process.

            Paper Nr: 334
            Title:

            Research on Integrated Fault Diagnosis of Steam Turbine based on CPN Neural Network and D-S Evidence Theory

            Authors:

            Peng Daogang, Zhang Hao, Huang Hengzi and Xia Fei

            Abstract: Counter-propagation Network, combining the type of supervised and unsupervised in the learning process, can overcome the shortcomings of BP Neural Network fall into local minimum, low learning rate and bad convergence performance. D-S evidence theory does not require a priori information and use the interval estimation method to describe the uncertain information based on reliability function calculating, and it adapted to the decision level of information fusion. Using the steam turbine rotor vibration simulation experimental platform as the object, the integrated fault diagnosis method for turbine generator based on CPN neural network and D-S evidence theory is established in this paper. This method takes the turbine vibration condition parameters as independent samples which are collected from different sensors. After feature extraction, processing and parameters normalized, these parameters are input independent CPN neural network to train, which makes the independence of each CPN neural network form the fault symptom to failure mode nonlinear mapping, then use the D-S evidence theory method for each CPN neural network to diagnosis and data fusion, thus realizing the turbine running state more accurate diagnosis.

            Paper Nr: 344
            Title:

            Attention Capabilities for AI Systems

            Authors:

            Helgi Páll Helgason and Kristinn R. Thórisson

            Abstract: Much of present AI research is based on the assumption of computational systems with infinite resources, an assumption that is either explicitly stated or implicit in the work as researchers ignore the fact that most real-world tasks must be finished within certain time limits, and it is the role of intelligence to effectively deal with such limitations. Expecting AI systems to give equal treatment to every piece of data they encounter is not appropriate in most real-world cases; available resources are likely to be insufficient for keeping up with available data in even moderately complex environments. Even if sufficient resources are available, they might possibly be put to better use than blindly applying them to every possible piece of data. Finding inspiration for more intelligent resource management schemes is not hard, we need to look no further than ourselves. This paper explores what human attention has to offer in terms of ideas and concepts for implementing intelligent resource management and how the resulting principles can be extended to levels beyond human attention. We also discuss some ideas for the principles behind attention mechanisms for artificial (general) intelligences.

            Paper Nr: 348
            Title:

            Flexibility in Organic Systems - Remarks on Mechanisms for Adapting System Goals at Runtime

            Authors:

            Christian Becker, Jörg Hähner and Sven Tomforde

            Abstract: Within the last decade, technical systems that are capable of self-adaptation at runtime emerged as challenging approach to cope with the increasing complexity and interconnectedness in today’s development and management processes. One major aspect of these systems is their ability to learn appropriate responses for all kinds of possibly occurring situations. Learning requires a goal function given by the user – which is subject to modifications at runtime. In order to allow for flexible manipulations of goals within the system’s operation period, the learning component must be able to keep knowledge in order to respond to varying goals quickly. This paper describes attempts to implementing flexible learning in rule-based systems. First results show that efficient approaches are possible even in real-world applications.

            Paper Nr: 355
            Title:

            Constrained Predictive Control of MIMO System - Application to a Two Link Manipulator

            Authors:

            Joanna Zietkiewicz

            Abstract: In the paper application of constrained predictive control to multi input, multi output system is presented. The method is based on feedback linearization and LQ control. Constraints of the system are implemented by interpolation of reference trajectory. Finding solution is a compromise between the unconstrained LQ control and a constrained feasible control and is executed by minimization of one variable. The application of the method to a two link manipulator is used to present advantages and limitations of the algorithm.

            Posters
            Paper Nr: 19
            Title:

            Gesture and Body Movement Recognition in the Military Decision Support System

            Authors:

            Jan Hodicky and Petr Frantis

            Abstract: The paper deals with the result of the research activity in the field of military decision support system. It brings a new way of communication between system and commander. Kinect - the low cost gesture and body movement recognition device was employed to control 3D visualization of real-time battlefield situation. Experiments confirmed the correctness of Kinect using to support all phases of decision making process. The quality of operation planning and control was increased.

            Paper Nr: 116
            Title:

            A Rescheduling Framework for Airline Scheduling

            Authors:

            Birthe Gebhardt and Jürgen Sauer

            Abstract: Airline scheduling is a sophisticated area. If a disruption occurs many tasks have to be taken into account. In order to structure the rescheduling process a framework is useful. The existing framework for rescheduling will extend with further information tasks to use various repair methods. The framework is cuts into two parts. The first part includes the precondition of the domain. The second parts described the tasks of the rescheduling process. The use of this framework allows to implement more than one rescheduling method.

            Paper Nr: 118
            Title:

            Quantitative Estimates of Stability in Controlled GI | D | 1 | #INF# Queueing Systems and in Control of Water Release in a Simple Dam Model

            Authors:

            Evgueni Gordienko and Juan Ruiz de Chávez

            Abstract: We consider two applied discrete-time Markov control models: waiting times process in $\mbox{GI}\mid \mbox{D}\mid 1 \mid\infty$ queues with a controlled service rate and water release control in a simple dam model with independent water inflows. The stochastic dynamics of both models is determinated by a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables with a distribution function $F$. In the situation when an available approximation $\tilde{F}$ is used in place of the unknown ${F}$, we estimate the deterioration of performance of control policies optimal with respect to the total discounted cost and the average cost per unit of time. For this purpose we introduce a stability index and find uppers bounds for this index expressed in terms of the Prokhorov distance between the distributions functions $F$ and $\tilde{F}$. When $\tilde{F} \equiv \tilde{F_{m}}$ is the empirical distribution function obtained from a sample of size m in average the stability index is less than a constant times $m^{\frac{-1}{3}}$.

            Paper Nr: 204
            Title:

            Flocking Approach to Spatial Configuration Control in Underwater Swarms

            Authors:

            Stefano Chiesa, Sergio Taraglio, Stefano Pagnottelli and Paolo Valigi

            Abstract: A modification of the flocking algorithm approach for a swarm of underwater vehicles is introduced. The proposed approach relaxes the symmetry of the inter vehicle interaction. It is thus possible to change the swarm spatial configuration assuming different formations with varying parameters. The swarm geometry is changed with a very limited effort, exploiting the capability of the flocking approach to make emerge a large scale arrangement. Examples of proposed variations are provided. The vehicles are dynamically modelled and the relative non holonomic proportional derivative controller is described. Experimental data are gathered from many vehicle physical simulations and graphically presented.

            Paper Nr: 251
            Title:

            Feature Selection Combined with Neural Network for Diesel Engine Diagnosis

            Authors:

            M. Benkaci and G. Hoblos

            Abstract: The Feature selection is an essential step for data classification used in fault detection and diagnosis process. In this work, a new approach is proposed which combines a feature selection algorithm and neural network tool for leaks detection task in diesel engine air path. The Chi2 is used as feature selection algorithm and the neural network based on Levenberg-Marquardt is used in system behaviour modelling. The obtained neural network is used for leaks detection. The model is learned and validated using data generated by xMOD. This tool is used again for test. The effectiveness of proposed approach is illustrated in simulation when the system operates on a low speed/load and the considered leak affecting the air path is very small.

            Paper Nr: 252
            Title:

            Distributed Control of Dangerous Goods Flows

            Authors:

            Claudio Roncoli, Chiara Bersani and Roberto Sacile

            Abstract: A risk-based approach to managing dangerous goods (DG) transport flows by road is proposed, solving a real-time flow assignment problem. The model assumes the planned scheduling of the fleets and the medium planned speed for vehicles known a priori. The objective is to plan in the vehicle tour schedules in base on DG and general vehicle flows data on the infrastructures acquired in real time. The model minimises both the total risk on the road network and the gap between the real delivery times with respect to the planned ones. The first objective is a social intent of a National Authority and the second one represents the main important cost minimisation for DG carriers. The proposed model is formulated according to an original distributed control approach, based on the decomposition of the original centralised linear quadratic problem.

            Paper Nr: 266
            Title:

            Development of Mobile Research Robot

            Authors:

            A. Baums, A. Gordjusins and G. Kanonirs

            Abstract: For new autonomous mobile robot design, the real time problem analysis at different periods of robot activity phases is made. The robot sensor and actuator cluster structure is used. At first the robot is determined as a hard real time system when all phases defined and executed sequentially are in hard deadlines. At second for the robot activity with hard and soft deadline execution phases is proposed using of the time/utility function (TUF). For time and energy consumption estimation, the flexible robot physical model is developed and used. Wireless technology is proposed for new autonomous mobile robot design.

            Paper Nr: 267
            Title:

            Modified Hybrid Evolutionary Strategies Method for Termination Control Problem with Relay Actuator

            Authors:

            Ivan Ryzhikov and Eugene Semenkin

            Abstract: The termination control problem, i.e., the problem with finite time and relay control function, is considered. The proposed approach fits different control problems, e.g., problems with the fixed or free time, problems with the set-up actuator characteristics and problems where the actuator can be tuned. The considered system is the nonlinear dynamic one and the number of relay switch points assumed to be tuned indirectly. To find out the solution of the given problem, the modified evolution strategies method is suggested. The proposed approach is useful also for the non-analytical system models and systems that can be evaluated numerically.

            Paper Nr: 291
            Title:

            Speaker Identification Systems by Means of Neural Networks Classifier

            Authors:

            Salma Belhassen and Najet Arous

            Abstract: Neural networks have been traditionally considered as an alternative approach to speaker recognition. In this paper, we propose three systems of speaker identification by means of neural networks classifier. Our systems are based on multi-layer perceptrons (MLP) which is a feedforward neural network model. It uses a supervised learning technique such as backpropagation for training the network. The performance of the systems is assessed using a subset of 10 speakers drawn from the TIMIT speech database.

            Paper Nr: 321
            Title:

            Modelling and Simulation of Human-like Movements for Humanoid Robots

            Authors:

            Parvin Abedi and Ali Leylavi Shoushtari

            Abstract: The humanoid robots are bio-inspired models of human body. The mechanical structure of humanoid robots consists of several joints and segments. Numerous degrees of freedom are caused the redundancy problem. There is an unanswered question concerning with strategies which central nervous system implements to predict the human posture and gesture during different movements. A 7 degree of freedom model is used for modelling humanoid robot and an optimization-based method is planned to simulation of human motion. The joints angles and torques are subjected as optimization variables. The joints range of motion and limits of actuator torques are used as optimization constraints. The weight lifting is the motion which is subjected to simulation. Finally the results presented for two velocity lifting. The result shows the body posture varies naturally and the weight maintain at the end position at final time correctly.

            Area 2 - Robotics and Automation

            Full Papers
            Paper Nr: 38
            Title:

            On the Multiple-view Triangulation Problem with Perspective and Non-perspective Cameras - A Virtual Reprojection-based Approach

            Authors:

            Graziano Chesi

            Abstract: This paper considers the multiple-view triangulation problem in a vision system with perspective and non-perspective cameras. In particular, cameras that can be modeled through a spherical projection followed by a perspective one, such as perspective cameras and fisheye cameras, are considered. For this problem, an approach based on reprojecting the available image points onto virtual image planes is proposed, which has the advantage of transforming the original problem into a new one for which the existing methods for multiple-view triangulation with perspective cameras can be used. In particular, algebraic and geometric errors of such methods are now evaluated on the virtual image planes, and the solution of the new problem exactly approaches the sought scene point as image noise and calibration errors tend to zero. The proposed approach is illustrated by several numerical investigations with synthetic and real data.

            Paper Nr: 40
            Title:

            Hierarchical Planning of Modular Behaviour Networks for Office Delivery Robot

            Authors:

            Jong-Won Yoon and Sung-Bae Cho

            Abstract: This paper proposes a hybrid architecture based on hierarchical planning of modular behaviour networks for generating autonomous behaviours of the office delivery robot. Behaviour networks suitable for goal-oriented problems are exploited for the architecture, where a monolithic behaviour network is decomposed into several smaller behaviour modules. In order to construct and adjust sequences of the modules the planning method considers the sub-goals, the priority in each task and the user feedback. It helps a robot to quickly react in dynamic situations as well as achieve global goals efficiently. The proposed architecture is verified on both the Webot simulator and Khepera II robot in office environment with delivery tasks. Experimental results confirms that a robot can achieve goals and generate module sequences successfully even in unpredictable situations, and the proposed planning method reduces the elapsed time during tasks by 17.5%.

            Paper Nr: 49
            Title:

            Development of a Piezo-actuated Robot for Cell Injection

            Authors:

            D. Chakarov, K. Kostadinov, A. Shulev and T. Tiankov

            Abstract: In the presented work model and experiments of compliant robots with piezo actuators are carried out. The robot is designed to perform automatic injection of cells in the range of 10-30 μm. A kinematics model of serial-parallel structures is presented. Pseudo rigid body approach is used, where the elastic joints are modelled as revolute joints. Models for tension of parallel structures with elastic joints are developed in order to eliminate backlashes, to diminish hysteresis, and to improve the performance of the piezo-actuators. Two design approaches are proposed. First approach ensures preliminary tensioning by assembly translation along the axes of the driving joints. Second approach ensures preliminary tensioning by assembly deflections of the basic serial chain elastic joints. The design of new 3-degrees of freedom (DOF) piezo actuated micro-manipulators with serial-parallel structure including elastic joints capable of performing cell injection is presented. Numerical experiments are done for tensioning of the manipulator. An estimation of the manipulator mechanical parameters for different approaches is carried out. Manipulator simulations with elastic joints are performed using FEA based function of a CAD system. The real manipulator prototype is experimentally investigated using digital image correlation technique.

            Paper Nr: 104
            Title:

            Design and Analysis of an Automated Heavy Vehicle Platoon

            Authors:

            Gábor Rödönyi, Péter Gaspár, József Bokor and László Palkovics

            Abstract: From the model set identification through the control design and robust performance analysis to the implementation and experimental verification, the whole design process for an automated vehicle platoon is presented. The goal is to demonstrate that safe platooning with acceptable performance can be achieved by utilizing the services already available on every commercial heavy trucks with automated gearbox. Using the services, the control design reduces to the selection of four design parameters, the static gain coefficients of the output-feedback-input-feed-forward controller common for every vehicle. It is experimentally demonstrated, that in normal driving maneuvers, the spacing errors are less than three meters.

            Paper Nr: 131
            Title:

            Trajectory Tracking Control by LMI-based Approach for Car-like Robots

            Authors:

            Nicoleta Minoiu Enache

            Abstract: A lot of research has been done concerning motion planning and trajectory tracking control for robots, including car-like robots. Nevertheless, most of the methods require very well defined trajectories, continuous and several times derivable. Frequently, the system has to be written in a specific form, like the chained form, and the path obtained in the original space may not satisfy additional constraints in the original space or singularities can occur in the control law. The goal of this work is to investigate a control method to do the trajectory tracking control of car-like robots in the original space, which does not require trajectories several times derivable, but with good robustness and pursuit properties in order to implement it on a passenger vehicle. The control law for trajectory tracking presented here is derived from a method developed for unicycles. This is based on a real time combination of static linear feedbacks that are obtained by an off line LMI (Linear Matrix Inequalities) approach.

            Paper Nr: 164
            Title:

            View-based SLAM using Omnidirectional Images

            Authors:

            D. Valiente, A. Gil, L. Fernández and O. Reinoso

            Abstract: In this paper we focus on the problem of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) using visual information obtained from the environment. In particular, we propose the use of a single omnidirectional camera to carry out this task. Many approaches to visual SLAM concentrate on the estimation of the position of a set of 3D points, commonly denoted as visual landmarks which are extracted from images acquired at the environment. Thus the complexity of the map computation grows as the number of visual landmarks in the map increases. In this paper we propose a different representation of the environment that presents a series of advantages compared to the before mentioned approaches, such as a simplified computation of the map and a more compact representation of the environment. Concretely, the map is represented by a set of views captured from particular places in the environment. Each view is composed by its position and orientation in the map and a set of 2D interest points represented in the image reference frame. Thus, in each view the relative orientation of a set of visual landmarks is stored. During the map building stage, the robot captures an image and finds corresponding points between the current view and the views stored in the map. Assuming that a set of corresponding points is found, the transformation between both views can be computed, thus allowing us to build the map and estimate the pose of the robot. In the suggested framework, the problem of finding correspondences between views is troublesome. Consequently, with the aim of performing a more reliable approach, we propose a new method to find correspondences between two omnidirectional images when the relative error between them is modeled by a gaussian distribution which correlates the current error on the map. In order to validate the ideas presented here, we have carried out a series of experiment in a real environment using real data. Experiment results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed solution.

            Paper Nr: 176
            Title:

            Autonomously Traversing Obstacles - Metrics for Path Planning of Reconfigurable Robots on Rough Terrain

            Authors:

            Michael Brunner, Bernd Brüeggemann and Dirk Schulz

            Abstract: The fixed chassis design of commonly employed mobile robots restricts their application to fairly flat environments, as the wheel diameters or the track heights impose hard limits on their mobility. Unstructured outdoor and urban environments alike comprehend many different invincible obstacles for most of those systems, like stairs, boulders or rubble. However, there are mobile robots with reconfigurable chassis providing a higher degree of mobility and enabling them to overcome such obstacles. Yet, current planning algorithms rarely exploit those enhanced capabilities, limiting these systems to the same environments as the fixed chassis robots. This paper focuses on the metrics used by our motion planner. The employment of a two-stage planning approach allows us to use different cost functions for the initial path search and the detailed motion planning step. The purpose of the initial search is to quickly find a fast environment-driven path to the goal. Hence, it uses fast computable heuristics to assess the drivability, i.e. a risk quantification and the utmost operation limits of the robot model. The detailed planning step determines the desired robot configurations. For this purpose, we consider the actuator controls, the system’s stability, an estimate of the traction, and the driving speed in addition to the quantities used in the first stage. We present experiments to illustrate the influence of the safety weights and real world experiments which prove the validity and feasibility of the metrics used by our motion planning algorithm.

            Paper Nr: 200
            Title:

            Development of Parallel Two-wheel Vehicle with Lower Gravity Center of Vehicle Body

            Authors:

            Yoshiyuki Noda, Yukinori Sago, Kazuhiko Terashima, Kiyoaki Kakihara and Hirotoshi Kawamura

            Abstract: This paper presents an advanced parallel two-wheel vehicle which has lower gravity center of vehicle body. The gravity center is assigned at the lower position than the wheel axis. Therefore, the vehicle has a structure of the pendulum, and enables the vehicle body with the passenger to always keep the stable posture, even if the vehicle is in the power-off or control-off condition. And, 2-DOF joystick which has operation with back-and-forth direction and rotation is applied to the proposed vehicle. The elderly or handicapped passenger can operate easily the vehicle by this joystick. Moreover, in order to suppress the sway of the vehicle body as a pitching oscillation while driving the vehicle, the sway suppression control system with an active mass damper system is proposed in this paper. The control system is designed by a backstepping method. The effectiveness of the proposed sway suppression control system with the active mass damper system is verified by the experiments using the proposed parallel two-wheel vehicle with lower gravity center.

            Paper Nr: 206
            Title:

            Design and Control of a Novel Unmanned Ground Vehicle

            Authors:

            M. Osinuga and A. Lanzon

            Abstract: This paper presents a novel design of a full six-degree-of-freedom, tri-rotor-actuated single-wheeled vehicle. When stationary on the ground, the model of the vehicle mimics an inverted pendulum system, a typical representative of highly nonlinear systems with non-minimum phase and unstable characteristics. The full nonlinear model of the vehicle is derived using Newton-Euler approach, but the objective herein is to balance the single-wheeled vehicle in its unstable upright position as this is a precursor to rolling motion. Robust feedback and Jacobi linearization techniques are invoked on the nonlinear dynamics of the vehicle in the relevant axis for subsequent controller synthesis. The synthesized controllers are verified and compared by means of numerical simulations, where it is shown that the design objective of stabilizing the vehicle in its unstable equilibrium (upright) position is robustly achieved.

            Paper Nr: 216
            Title:

            Link Quality Estimator for a Mobile Robot

            Authors:

            Narek Pezeshkian, Joseph D. Neff and Abraham Hart

            Abstract: Maintaining link connectivity between a mobile robot and its control station in a non-line-of-sight environment is challenging. One solution is to use intermediate relay radios that the robot can carry and deploy when and where needed to maintain the link. However, the precise placement locations for the relays are not known ahead of time. Therefore, the deployment decision must be formulated online and the relays deployed before the link with the control station breaks. A link-quality estimator is developed based on video throughput and received signal strength indicator data. The estimator takes into account human perception of video quality that is obtained via subjective testing by an operator. The data is used to train the link-quality estimator, which issues an alert that can be used as a trigger for an automatic relay deployment mechanism or to advise the operator to manually deploy relays before the link between the robot and control station fails.

            Paper Nr: 227
            Title:

            Trajectory Tracking Control of Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robots - Combined Direct and Indirect Adaptive Control using Multiple Models Approach

            Authors:

            Altan Onat and Metin Ozkan

            Abstract: This paper presents a novel methodology for the trajectory tracking control of nonholonomic wheeled mobile robots using multiple identification models. The overall control system includes two stages. In the first stage, a kinematic controller developed by using kinematic model provides the required linear and angular velocities of the robot for tracking a reference trajectory. In the second stage, the required velocities are taken as the inputs to an adaptive dynamic controller which uses multiple adaptive models for the parameter identification. The proposed adaptive dynamic controller is developed using a combined direct and indirect adaptive control approach where both prediction and tracking errors are used for identification. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed combined direct and indirect control scheme and multiple models approach.

            Paper Nr: 235
            Title:

            Global Visual Features based on Random Process - Application to Visual Servoing

            Authors:

            Laroussi Hammouda, Khaled Kaaniche, Hassen Mekki and Mohamed Chtourou

            Abstract: This paper presents new global visual features: random distribution of limited set of pixels luminance. Our approach aims to improve the real-time performance of visual servoing applications. In fact, using these new features, we reduce the computation time of the visual servoing scheme. Our method is based on a random process which ensures efficient and fast convergence of the robot. The use of our new features removes the matching and tracking process. Experimental results are presented to validate our approach.

            Paper Nr: 236
            Title:

            Compensation of Tool Deflection in Robotic-based Milling

            Authors:

            Alexandr Klimchik, Dmitry Bondarenko, Anatol Pashkevich, Sebastien Briot and Benôit Furet

            Abstract: The paper presents the compliance errors compensation technique for industrial robots, which are used in milling manufacturing cells. under external loading, which is based on the non-linear stiffness model. In contrast to previous works, it takes into account the interaction between the milling tool and the workpiece that depends on the end-effector position, process parameters and cutting conditions (spindle rotation, feed rate, geometry of the tool, etc.). Within the developed technique, the compensation errors caused by external loading is based on the non-linear stiffness model and reduces to a proper adjusting of a target trajectory that is modified in the off-line mode. The advantages and practical significance of the proposed technique are illustrated by an example that deals with milling with Kuka robot.

            Paper Nr: 239
            Title:

            A Bug-based Path Planner Guided with Homotopy Classes

            Authors:

            Emili Hernández, Marc Carreras and Pere Ridao

            Abstract: This paper proposes a bug-based path planning algorithm guided topologically with homotopy classes. Homotopy classes provide a topological description of how paths avoid obstacles in the workspace. They are generated with a method we developed, which builds a topological environment based on the workspace that allows to compute homotopy classes systematically. The homotopy classes are sorted according to a heuristic estimation of their lower bound. Only those with the smaller lower bound are used to guide the path planner we propose, called Homotopic Bug (HBug), which efficiently computes paths in the workspace that accomplish homotopy classes. Results show the feasibility of our method. A comparison with well-known path planners has also been included.

            Paper Nr: 265
            Title:

            LGMD based Neural Network for Automatic Collision Detection

            Authors:

            Ana Silva, Jorge Silva and Cristina Santos

            Abstract: Real-time collision detection in dynamic scenarios is a hard task if the algorithms used are based on conventional techniques of computer vision, since these are computationally complex and, consequently, time-consuming. On the other hand, bio-inspired visual sensors are suitable candidates for mobile robot navigation in unknown environments, due to their computational simplicity. The Lobula Giant Movement Detector (LGMD) neuron, located in the locust optic lobe, responds selectively to approaching objects. This neuron has been used to develop bio-inspired neural networks for collision avoidance. In this work, we propose a new LGMD model based on two previous models, in order to improve over them by incorporating other algorithms. To assess the real-time properties of the proposed model, it was applied to a real robot. Results shown that the LGMD neuron model can robustly support collision avoidance in complex visual scenarios.

            Paper Nr: 277
            Title:

            Vision based Real-time Modeling of Dynamic Unstructured Environments in Driving Scenarios

            Authors:

            Andrei Vatavu and Sergiu Nedevschi

            Abstract: The detection of moving traffic participants is an essential intermediate step for higher level driving technology tasks. Regardless of the type of used sensors, dynamic environment modeling becomes even more difficult when the surrounding world is unstructured and heterogeneous. In such complex environments the representation system can be affected by noisy measurements, occlusions, wrong data association or unpredictable nature of the traffic participants. We propose a solution of representing the dynamic environment in real-time by using the pairwise alignment of free-form models and considering the advantages provided by a dense stereovision system. Instead of registering the whole 3D point cloud, our method is based on extracting and registering a more compact model of the environment taking into consideration the most visible object cells from the ego car. The proposed method is based on information provided by a Digital Elevation-Map, but can be easily adapted for other types of intermediate representations.

            Paper Nr: 285
            Title:

            From Robot Commands to Real-time Robot Control - Transforming High-level Robot Commands into Real-time Dataflow Graphs

            Authors:

            Andreas Schierl, Andreas Angerer, Alwin Hoffmann, Michael Vistein and Wolfgang Reif

            Abstract: Task descriptions in robotics always provide a level of abstraction in order to simplify the use of robots. Nevertheless, aspects such as execution time determinism and closed-loop control are still essential for industrial-strength robotics systems. For this reason, we propose an approach to combine high-level task description with real-time robot control. At application runtime, coordinated and sensor-guided robot actions are composed using an object-oriented application programming interface. The resulting high-level command descriptions are then automatically transformed into dataflow graphs and executed with real-time guarantees on robot hardware. The approach is illustrated with several examples.

            Short Papers
            Paper Nr: 11
            Title:

            Particle Filtering for Position based 6DOF Visual Servoing in Industrial Environments

            Authors:

            Aitor Ibarguren, José María Martínez-Otzeta and Iñaki Maurtua

            Abstract: Visual servoing allows the introduction of robotic manipulation in dynamic and uncontrolled environments. This paper presents a position-based visual servoing algorithm using particle filtering. The objective is the grasping of objects using the 6 degrees of freedom of the robot manipulator (position and orientation) in non-automated industrial environments using monocular vision. A particle filter has been added to the position-based visual servoing algorithm to deal with the different noise sources of those industrial environments (metallic nature of the objects, dirt or illumination problems…). This addition allows dealing with those uncertainties and being able to recover from errors in the grasping process. Experiments performed in the real industrial scenario of ROBOFOOT project showed accurate grasping and high level of stability in the visual servoing process.

            Paper Nr: 33
            Title:

            An Autonomous Biped - Concept and Design

            Authors:

            Peter Jakubik

            Abstract: This paper argues for a new approach in the mechanical design principle for the humanoid walkers. Applying linear electric direct drive motors the biped mechanism is able to behave as dynamically highly reactive walker admissible to exploiting its own natural dynamics. Based on this, a whole new concept of an anthropomorphic walker prototype is described including the interaction of the design and algorithmic aspects of the motion control.

            Paper Nr: 44
            Title:

            A Generative Traversability Model for Monocular Robot Self-guidance

            Authors:

            Michael Sapienza and Kenneth Camilleri

            Abstract: In order for robots to be integrated into human active spaces and perform useful tasks, they must be capable of discriminating between traversable surfaces and obstacle regions in their surrounding environment. In this work, a principled semi-supervised (EM) framework is presented for the detection of traversable image regions for use on a low-cost monocular mobile robot. We propose a novel generative model for the occurrence of traversability cues, which are a measure of dissimilarity between safe-window and image superpixel features. Our classification results on both indoor and outdoor images sequences demonstrate its generality and adaptability to multiple environments through the online learning of an exponential mixture model. We show that this appearance-based vision framework is robust and can quickly and accurately estimate the probabilistic traversability of an image using no temporal information. Moreover, the reduction in safe-window size as compared to the state-of-the-art enables a self-guided monocular robot to roam in closer proximity of obstacles.

            Paper Nr: 48
            Title:

            How to Use an Adaptive High-gain Observer in Diagnosis Problems

            Authors:

            Frédéric Lafont, Jean-François Balmat, Nathalie Pessel and Jean-Paul Gauthier

            Abstract: This paper explains how to use an adaptive High-Gain observer in sensor diagnosis problems. This type of observer allows to switch between a classical Extended Kalman Filter and High-Gain observer according to an innovation function. Combined with a standard technique of residual generation, this approach is very efficient to determine fault occurence in the non-linear dynamical systems. We present the obtained results on a wastewater treatment system.

            Paper Nr: 57
            Title:

            Semi-static Object Detection using Polygonal Maps for Safe Navigation of Industrial Robots

            Authors:

            Dario Lodi Rizzini, Gionata Boccalini and Stefano Caselli

            Abstract: The collision and safety control of industrial UGVs equipped with laser range finders is often based on conservative area-oriented policies that lack in flexibility and does not deal well with non ephemeral environment changes due to semi-static objects (e.g. passive misplaced objects). In this paper, we propose a method to detect and represent semi-static objects using polygonal local maps in order to improve robot navigation. Each local map consists of polylines representing the boundary of an object detected inside a safety area. Polylines are extracted from laser scans and associated with the polylines of a reference map using a similarity measure criterion. Finally, the map is updated by merging the new polylines. The proposed polygonal representation allows the recognition of new semi-static obstacles in the environment and supports more flexible policies for safe navigation. An EKF localizer using artificial landmarks and a fixed path navigation system have been implemented to replicate the navigation system of industrial UGVs. The precision of environment reconstruction has been assessed with experiments in simulated and real environments.

            Paper Nr: 67
            Title:

            Modelling of a Grasping and Manipulation Controller

            Authors:

            Pavel Dzitac and Abdul Md Mazid

            Abstract: This paper presents the development of a robot grasping and manipulation control system, including the modelling approach for the control functions, and the criteria used for functional module design in order to achieve the required functionality and allow its integration into the overall control model. This work is an example of a practical implementation of a robotic grasping and manipulation controller and may be relevant to researchers looking for an example of a practical controller design “from scratch”.

            Paper Nr: 93
            Title:

            3D Dense Reconstruction from Two-Frame Stereo Correspondences

            Authors:

            Costantino Scozzafava and Giuseppe Zuffanti

            Abstract: In this paper a novel approach to the problem of 3D reconstruction from stereovision is proposed. The analyzed solution is based on the identification of suitable metrics of image pixels able to measure their (dis)similarity using rectangular, fixed-size, local support windows. Every local support window, centred in a given pixel, is weighted based on colour proximity and colour segmentation of surrounding pixels. Then a metrics for dissimilarity computation between potentially homologous pixels across the images is applied using an aggregation (convolution) of raw costs together a measure of colour affinities. Finally the resulting measures are used to build two disparity maps (left-to-right and right-to-left) and the maps fused in a final one.

            Paper Nr: 109
            Title:

            An Integrated Approach for Efficient Mobile Robot Trajectory Tracking and Obstacle Avoidance

            Authors:

            Aleksandar Cosic, Marko Susic and Dusko Katic

            Abstract: An approach for nonholonomic two-wheeled mobile robot trajectory tracking and obstacle avoiding is presented in this paper. If the desired trajectory is provided by high level planner, trajectory tracking problem can be solved in various ways. In this paper, tracking is provided using proportional-integral (PI) or fuzzy logic controller (FLC). Unfortunately, tracking is never perfect, due to uncertainties and obstacles can change their positions in time. In order to overcome these difficulties, additional correction controller must be used. Here is proposed fuzzy controller, which slightly changes control action of the tracking controller in order to prevent collision with obstacles. This approach is proved to be efficient even in dynamic environments. Simulation results are presented as illustration of the proposed approach.

            Paper Nr: 120
            Title:

            Dynamic Model of a 7-DOF Whole Arm Manipulator and Validation from Experimental Data

            Authors:

            Zaira Pineda Rico, Andrea Lecchini-Visintini and Rodrigo Quian Quiroga

            Abstract: The present paper describes the design of the dynamic model of a 7 degrees of freedom whole arm manipulator implemented in SimMechanics. The friction phenomena of the manipulator is identified, represented through a fitted model and included in the system model with the aim of increment the accuracy of the model with respect to the real system. The characteristics of the model make it suitable to test and design control strategies for motion and friction compensation in MATLAB/Simulink.

            Paper Nr: 121
            Title:

            Object Recognition based on a Simplified PCNN

            Authors:

            Yuli Chen, Yide Ma, Dong Hwan Kim and Sung-Kee Park

            Abstract: The aim of the paper is to propose a region-based object recognition method to identify objects from complex real-world scenes. The proposed method firstly performs a colour image segmentation by a simplified pulse coupled neural network (SPCNN) model, and the parameters of the SPCNN are automatically set by our previously proposed parameter setting method. Subsequently, the proposed method performs a region-based matching between a model object image and a test image. A large number of object recognition experiments have proved that the proposed method is robust against the variations in translation, rotation, scale and illumination, even under partial occlusion and highly clutter backgrounds. Also it shows a good performance in identifying less-textured objects, which significantly outperforms most feature-based methods.

            Paper Nr: 136
            Title:

            Evaluation of a Joint Hysteresis Model in a Robot Actuated by Pneumatic Muscles

            Authors:

            Michael Kastner, Hubert Gattringer and Ronald Naderer

            Abstract: Passively compliant drives are interesting alternatives to classical stiff actuators in emerging fields like human–robot cooperation, service and rehabilitation robotics. Pneumatic muscles have been found to be interesting low–cost actuators for such purposes. To fully realize the (desired) higher sensitivity and at the same time maintain a good control quality, detailed models of the robot’s own components are required. For pneumatic muscles, their hysteresis characteristic is a challenging property. In this paper we present a hysteresis model based on a Prandtl–Ishlinskii operator approach and evaluate the resulting performance when the inverse model is used for compensation in the position controller. The evaluation is done on a real multi–axes robot arm.

            Paper Nr: 152
            Title:

            Semantic Place Recognition based on Deep Belief Networks and Tiny Images

            Authors:

            Ahmad Hasasneh, Emmanuelle Frenoux and Philippe Tarroux

            Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach for robot semantic place recognition (SPR) based on Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and a direct use of tiny images. RBMs are able to code images as a superposition of a limited number of features taken from a larger alphabet. Repeating this process in a deep architecture leads to an efficient sparse representation of the initial data in the feature space. A complex problem of classification in the input space is thus transformed into an easier one in the feature space. In this article, we show that SPR can thus be achieved using tiny images instead of conventional Bag-of-Words (BoW) methods. After appropriate coding, a softmax regression in the feature space suffices to compute the probability to be in a given place according to the input image.

            Paper Nr: 169
            Title:

            Two-view Epipole-based Guidance Control for Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

            Authors:

            W. Achicanoy, C. Sagüés, G. López-Nicolás and C. Rodríguez

            Abstract: A visual control based on epipolar geometry is proposed to guide an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to a target position. The interest of this contribution resides in a new controller that allows purely vision-based guidance reducing the dependence on the accuracy of the system’s state estimation using sensors as InertialMeasurement Units (IMU) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). A current view and a target view are defined by a camera on-board the vehicle and a camera located at the target’s position, respectively. The epipolar coordinates from these views are used to design a nonlinear control based on input-output linearization of the nonlinear engagement rule that relates the cameras’ positions in time. An integrator is included to force the outputs (epipolar coordinates) to follow an equilibrium point and a state feedback control law is proposed to stabilize the outcome of the linearized input-output mapping. Simulation experiments for guidance of an small autonomous UAV with a classical three-loop autopilot are presented.

            Paper Nr: 183
            Title:

            Motorbike Modeling and Control

            Authors:

            João Sequeira and Marco di Vittori

            Abstract: This paper surveys the kinematics of bikes and details the construction of a dynamics model for a motorbike using the Lagrangian approach. Using data from a typical sports motorbike, a dynamics model is obtained by symbolic computation. This model, of high algebraic complexity, is then wrapped as a function and used for control purposes. Control strategies based on PID, MPC, and nonlinear control are discussed and simulation results for each of them are presented.

            Paper Nr: 207
            Title:

            Motion Detection and Velocity Estimation for Obstacle Avoidance using 3D Point Clouds

            Authors:

            Sobers L. X. Francis, Sreenatha G. Anavatti and Matthew Garratt

            Abstract: This paper proposes a novel three dimensional (3D) velocity estimation method by using differential flow techniques for the dynamic path planning of Autonomous Ground Vehicles (AGV) in cluttered environment. We provide a frame work for the computation of dense and non rigid 3D flow vectors from the range data, obtained from the time-of-flight camera. Combined Lucas/Kanade and Horn/schunck approach is used to estimate the velocity of the dynamic obstacles. The trajectory of the dynamic obstacle is predicted from the direction of 3D flow field and the estimated velocity. By experiments, the utility of the approach is demonstrated with the results.

            Paper Nr: 210
            Title:

            Robot Phase Entrainment on Quadruped CPG Controller

            Authors:

            Vitor Matos and Cristina P. Santos

            Abstract: Central Pattern Generators are used in several kinds of robot locomotion, from swimming and flying, to bipeds, quadrupeds and hexapods. It is thought that this approach can yield better results in dynamical and natural environments. In this work we expand a previous quadruped locomotion controller and propose a method to couple the step cycle phase onto the locomotor CPG of a quadruped robot, creating a feedback pathway to coordinate the phases of each leg to the phase of the step cycle. This approach is tested in a simulated quadruped robot and the performed locomotion is evaluated. Results demonstrate that the proposed phase coupling synchronizes the swing step phase of ipsilateral legs to the respective step phase of the cycle and show an improvement in stability of the performed walk gait.

            Paper Nr: 212
            Title:

            Integral Sliding Mode and Second Order Sliding Mode Attitude and Altitude Tracking of a Quadrotor System - Theory and Experiment

            Authors:

            Mouloud Bouchoucha, Abdessamed Boudane, Kamel Ali and Sofiane Seghour

            Abstract: In this paper Attitude and Altitude tracking control design of the four rotors helicopter will be considered. Two robust control algorithms will be designed for the case of stabilization and tacking of attitude and altitude system’s outputs. The attitude controller is realized using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) based on MEMS sensors. The altitude control algorithm uses a sonar sensor output. The control algorithms designed are implemented on an embedded control system based on a dsPIC ?C. The obtained experimental results demonstrate high performance of both controllers and robustness against disturbances.

            Paper Nr: 213
            Title:

            False Positive Outliers Rejection for Improving Image Registration Accuracy - Application to Road Traffic Aerial Sequences

            Authors:

            Ines Hadj Mtir, Khaled Kaâniche, Pascal Vasseur and Mohamed Chtourou

            Abstract: The objective of our system is to detect vehicles from aerial sequences. Theses sequences are taken from a camera mounted on UAV which flies over roads and highways. Our approach is to firstly compensate the motion introduced by the dynamic behaviour of the camera. This leads us to a problem of image registration. The moving regions (vehicles) are after that extracted using residual motion. The aim of this paper is to present a combined method for features matching and outliers rejection to increase the accuracy of the registration phase. We use first, the SIFT descriptors and then outliers are rejected using geometric constraints. This leads to a better registration and a minimum of false alarms in the detection phase.

            Paper Nr: 222
            Title:

            Kinematic Analysis of Lower Mobility Cooperative Arms by Screw Theory

            Authors:

            Philip Long, Wisama Khalil and Stéphane Caro

            Abstract: This paper studies the kinematic modeling and analysis of a system with two cooperative manipulators, working together on a common task. The task is defined as the transportation of an object in space. The cooperative system is the dual armed humanoid Nao robot, where the serial architecture of each arm has five degrees of freedom. The mobility of the closed loop system is analyzed and the nature of the possible motion explored. The serial singular configurations of the system are considered. Furthermore the parallel singularities of the closed loop system associated with each actuation scheme are analyzed.

            Paper Nr: 224
            Title:

            Construction and Modeling of a Variable Collective Pitch Coaxial UAV

            Authors:

            Jinqiang Cui, Fei Wang, Zhengyin Qian, Ben M. Chen and Tong H. Lee

            Abstract: This paper describes the construction and modeling of a coaxial unmanned aerial vehicle for in-forest operation. The bare helicopter platform is upgraded and mounted with an onboard navigation system, which includes central processing units and sensors such as inertial measurement unit, camera and scanning laser range finder. The model structure of the helicopter is formulated, in which the model of rotor thrust and roll-pitch dynamics are described in details. The flapping dynamics of the rotor and the stabilizer bar are presented and lumped into a state-space model. The parameters of the state-space model are identified in frequency domain using CIFER. Time domain verification with a new set of flight data exhibits excellent agreement with the prediction of the identified model.

            Paper Nr: 226
            Title:

            Mobile Robots Pose Tracking - A Set-membership Approach using a Visibility Information

            Authors:

            Rémy Guyonneau, Sébastien Lagrange and Laurent Hardouin

            Abstract: This paper proposes a set-membership method based on interval analysis to solve the pose tracking problem. The originality of this approach is to consider weak sensors data: the visibility between two robots. By using a team of robots and this boolean information (two robots see each other or not), the objective is to compensate the odometry errors and be able to localize, in a guaranteed way, the robots in an indoor environment. This environment is supposed to be defined by two sets, an inner and an outer characterizations. Simulated results allow to evaluate the efficiency and the limits of the proposed method.

            Paper Nr: 242
            Title:

            A Mobile Service Robot for Industrial Applications

            Authors:

            Luca Lattanzi, Giacomo Angione, Cristina Cristalli, Florian Weisshardt, Georg Arbeiter and Birgit Graf

            Abstract: This paper addresses the challenge of introducing mobile robots in industrial applications, where changes in the working environment and diversification of tasks require flexibility, adaptability and in some cases basic reasoning capabilities. Classical industrial robots hardly permit to meet these requirements, so a new concept of service robots facing challenging industrial production system needs is proposed. The realization of such an autonomous agent is illustrated and described in details, focusing on mobility, environmental perception and manipulation capabilities. The result is a mobile service robot able to face changeable conditions as well as unexpected situations and different kinds of manipulation tasks in industrial environments. In this paper an implementation dedicated to household appliances production is described, but the results achieved can be easily extended to many industrial sectors, goods and electromechanical components where high levels of flexibility and autonomy are needed.

            Paper Nr: 243
            Title:

            The Modular Behavioral Environment for Humanoids and other Robots (MoBeE)

            Authors:

            Mikhail Frank, Jürgen Leitner, Marijn Stollenga, Simon Harding, Alexander Förster and Jürgen Schmidhuber

            Abstract: To produce even the simplest human-like behaviors, a humanoid robot must be able to see, act, and react, within a tightly integrated behavioral control system. Although there exists a rich body of literature in Computer Vision, Path Planning, and Feedback Control, wherein many critical subproblems are addressed individually, most demonstrable behaviors for humanoid robots do not effectively integrate elements from all three disciplines. Consequently, tasks that seem trivial to us humans, such as pick-and-place in an unstructured environment, remain far beyond the state-of-the-art in experimental robotics. We view this primarily as a software engineering problem, and have therefore developed MoBeE, a novel behavioral framework for humanoids and other complex robots, which integrates elements from vision, planning, and control, facilitating the synthesis of autonomous, adaptive behaviors. We communicate the efficacy of MoBeE through several demonstrative experiments. We first develop Adaptive Roadmap Planning by integrating a reactive feedback controller into a roadmap planner. Then, an industrial manipulator teaches a humanoid to localize objects as the two robots operate autonomously in a shared workspace. Finally, an integrated vision, planning, control system is applied to a real-world reaching task using the humanoid robot.

            Paper Nr: 275
            Title:

            Integrating Kinect Depth Data with a Stochastic Object Classification Framework for Forestry Robots

            Authors:

            Mostafa Pordel, Thomas Hellström and Ahmad Ostovar

            Abstract: In this paper we study the integration of a depth sensor and an RGB camera for a stochastic classification system for forestry robots. The images are classified as bush, tree, stone and human and are expected to come from a robot working in forest environment. A set of features is extracted from labeled images to train a number of stochastic classifiers. The outputs of the classifiers are then combined in a meta-classifier to produce the final result. The results show that using depth information in addition to the RGB results in higher classification performance.

            Paper Nr: 284
            Title:

            Virtual Mechanism Approach for Dual-arm Manipulation

            Authors:

            Nejc Likar, Bojan Nemec and Leon ?lajpah

            Abstract: We propose a novel control approach for cooperative dual-arm object manipulation. Our scheme has three typical features: (1) the two arms with the object together form a new kinematic chain, where the base of the second arm is the end-effector of the new robot; (2) the object between the robots is defined as a virtual mechanism, therefore manipulating the object is accomplished by controlling the virtual mechanism; (3) the proposed scheme allows cooperative dual-arm systems performing a task while moving on mobile platforms. The proposed algorithm is verified with experiments on a dual-arm system with Kuka LWR robots, and simulations with 2 different robots: Kuka LWR on a fixed support and Mitsubishi PA10 robot on a mobile platform Nomad XR400.

            Paper Nr: 287
            Title:

            Two-arm Robot Teleoperation using a Multi-touch Tangible User Interface

            Authors:

            Andreas Angerer, Andreas Bareth, Alwin Hoffmann, Andreas Schierl, Michael Vistein and Wolfgang Reif

            Abstract: Teleoperation of robots can be interesting in various scenarios: operation in hazardous environments, medical surgery in the presence of radiation or, in general, remote control of robots in (partially) unknown environments. Crucial to teleoperation systems is an intuitive interface for the remote operator to ensure straightforward and precise control of the operated system. Advanced hardware devices and powerful software frameworks allow for quick development of such interfaces. We present a case study implementing a novel two-arm robot teleoperation interface using multi-touch and tangible user interface concepts. The focus lies on the implementation of this system, using an object oriented robot programming framework and the Microsoft Surface as a user interface platform.

            Paper Nr: 293
            Title:

            Low-speed Modeling and Simulation of Torpedo-shaped AUVs

            Authors:

            Bjarni Helgason, Leifur Leifsson, Indridi Rikhardsson, Helgi Thorgilsson and Slawomir Koziel

            Abstract: Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) have become important in many marine engineering applications, such as environmental monitoring, pipeline inspections, or oceanography. For these types of applications, most of the AUVs available in both academia and industry are shaped like a torpedo and travel at speeds of 3 knots or higher. There is an growing interest in AUVs that are capable of performing tasks at both low-speed as well as high speeds. Currently, many torpedo-shaped AUVs are not capable of controlled low-speed motion. This paper presents a simulation model for the low-speed motion of torpedo-shaped AUVs. The model is capable of simulating the surge, sway, heave, and yaw motions. The hydrodynamic forces acting on the AUV hull are modelled using strip theory, experimental data, and computational fluid dynamics. The simulation model was implemented using a commercially available software and validated using experimental data obtained from the Gavia AUV. The results show that the simulation model captures the AUV motion at low-speed and agrees well with the experimental data.

            Paper Nr: 300
            Title:

            Modeling and Visualizing Individual and Global Trends of a Multi-agent System

            Authors:

            Vinicius Nonnenmacher, Marta Becker Villamil and Luiz Paulo Luna de Oliveira

            Abstract: This paper proposes a new model for real-time visualization of the social dynamics as a resultant of individual changes due to their mutual interactions. The model allows the dynamical visualization of both, the individual characteristics changes as well as the resultant system trends as a whole. As an application, we investigated the role of individual degrees of influence and the number of agents in the global choice of a population between two antagonistic options.

            Paper Nr: 301
            Title:

            Cooperative Autonomous Driving for Vehicular Networks

            Authors:

            Lamia Iftekhar and Reza Olfati-Saber

            Abstract: In this paper, we introduce cooperative autonomous driving algorithms for vehicular networks in urban environments that take human safety into account and are capable of performing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) collision avoidance. We argue that “flocks” are multi-agent models of vehicular traffic on roads and propose novel autonomous driving architectures for cyber-physical vehicles capable of performing autonomous driving tasks such as lane-driving, lane-changing, braking, passing, and making turns. These autonomous driving algorithms are inspired by the flocking theory of Olfati-Saber (Olfati-Saber, 2006), though, there are notable differences between autonomous driving on urban roads and flocking behavior— flocks have a single desired destination whereas most drivers on road do not share the same destination. We demonstrate that lane-driving for a vehicular network with n > 3 vehicles cannot necessarily be performed using pairwise vehicular interactions and might require triangular interactions among triplets of vehicles. The self-driving vehicles in our framework turn out to be nonlinear switching systems with discrete states that are related to the driving modes of the vehicles. Complex driving maneuvers can be performed using a sequence of mode switchings. We present several examples of driving tasks that can be effectively performed using our proposed driving algorithms.

            Paper Nr: 304
            Title:

            Flocking for Networks of Mobile Robots with Nonlinear Dynamics

            Authors:

            Reza Olfati-Saber and Lamia Iftekhar

            Abstract: In this paper, we address the problem of flocking for networks of nonholonomic mobile robots with nonlinear dynamics given that a flocking algorithm for particles is known. Our approach relies on the use of near-identity change of coordinates that transform the nonlinear dynamics of the robot to a partially-linear normal form with a double-integrator linear subsystem. The flocking algorithm is then applied to the linear part. The inverse of the near-identity transformation provides the flocking algorithm for the networked nonholonomic robots. We prove the emergence of flocking behavior for robotic networks with nonlinear dynamics according to the formal definition of flocking in Olfati-Saber’s flocking paper (TAC ’06). Simulation results are provided for large-scale networks of two-wheeled robots with nonlinear dynamics as models of Khepera-III robots that demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed transformation and algorithm.

            Paper Nr: 319
            Title:

            Discrete Asymptotic Reachability via Expansions in Non-integer Bases

            Authors:

            Anna Chiara Lai and Paola Loreti

            Abstract: Aim of this paper is to show the connection between the theory of expansions in non-integer bases and discrete control systems. This idea is supported by an example of application, in the framework of robotics. We show how a model of multi-phalanx self-similar robot hand may be studied by means of results and techniques coming from non-standard numeration systems and related tools, like Iterated Function Systems (IFS) and, more generally, fractal geometry.

            Paper Nr: 330
            Title:

            Robot-Dog – Human Interaction in Urban Search and Rescue Scenarios - Improving the Efficiency of Rescue Teams in Hazardous Environments

            Authors:

            Anna Bosch, Xavier Cufi, Josep Ll. De la Rosa and Albert Figueras

            Abstract: After a natural urban disaster the interior of the rubble is often where the majority of victims are located. Mortality rates increases and peaks after 48 hours, so it is of major importance to have fast and effective search and rescue teams. Nowadays, the rescue and exploration teams normally use dogs as a companion to find victims. Trained dogs are very helpful in these situations since their high mobility, speed and detection capacity. However they need constant instructions and supervision, they can be in danger in some situations and they are not able to collect precise data from the environment. Instead of trying to build competing devices, the COMPANIONS project looks at cooperation between natural and artificial creatures and in particular robots and dogs. This is rather new ground for research, where all the dog shortcomings can be complemented with autonomous robots with cognitive abilities able to cooperate with dogs and humans in search and rescue environments. The aim of the project is to analyse how a team of agents (robots-dogs-humans in this case) can cooperate and interact during search and rescue. Research will be towards a new rescue scenario composed that will allow: (i) to empower the best characteristics of all the involved agents and to minimize the worst ones; (ii) provide the fundamental tools for enabling these three agents to work in a cooperative and efficient way in rescue missions; and (iii) and to lengthen the human-dog link by allowing the exploration combining mobile robots and trained dogs with more distant and safer human intervention in the dangerous rescue scenes. The main challenge will be the dog-robot interaction: to give visual cognitive and reasoning abilities to the robot in order to let him autonomously interact and cooperate with the dog according its behaviour and the environment conditions; and to specifically train a dog to correctly accept and interact the robot (in charge of an expert dog training company).

            Paper Nr: 337
            Title:

            Force Control of a Duct Cleaning Robot Brush using a Compliance Device

            Authors:

            Wootae Jeong, Seung-Woo Jeon, Duckshin Park and Soon-Bark Kwon

            Abstract: Conserving clean air and removing contaminants and particular matters accumulated in the ventilation system of the subway stations are key issue for high air quality and green environment. Accumulated various pollutants at inner duct surface can cause secondary air contamination and injure subway passengers’ respiratory system and health. In fact, periodic duct cleaning works can improve indoor air quality, but cleaning entire ventilation system takes high cost and manpower. This study proposes a newly developed duct cleaning robot to provide autonomous air duct cleaning. In addition, effective cleaning method with an automated robot device is developed. In particular, the new duct cleaning robot has functionality that cleans four sides of inner duct surface simultaneously with a constant pressure by using a force compliance brush. Control method with the compliant device has also been analysed. The proposed design of autonomous duct cleaning robot is expected to save the operating cost of subway ventilation system and sustain clean indoor air quality by providing easier and faster cleaning tools.

            Paper Nr: 347
            Title:

            Towards the Integrated Simulation and Programming of Palletizing Lines

            Authors:

            Antonello Calò, Davide Buratti, Dario Lodi Rizzini and Stefano Caselli

            Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the advantages and the issues of simulation and visual programming of palletizing machines and, in general, palletizing lines, and we illustrate an integrated software tool suite that meets such requirements. The increasing complexity of lines and the variability of product formats require a common machine model for all the tools, together with the independence from visualization to allow software reuse and extendibility. Furthermore, the model should also be able to include palletizing line components external to the machine that are critical for performance and whose model is only partially known.

            Paper Nr: 351
            Title:

            Task-based Method for Designing Underactuated Elastic Mechanisms

            Authors:

            Shoichiro Kamada, Youngwoo Kim and Goro Obinata

            Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a task-based method for designing underactuated mechanisms which actuators are linked with the joints via elastic elements. We consider multi-joint mechanisms that contain fewer independent actuators than the joints. The elastic elements work as convertors from the displacement of the actuators to the joint torques of the mechanisms. In our method, we analyze the joint motions of the mechanisms during the completion of each task and the level of participation of each joint for few specific tasks. The results of this study can be used for the synthesis of dedicated underactuated mechanisms that can operate in a low task coordinate space and for the systematic design of underactuated mechanisms.

            Paper Nr: 353
            Title:

            A Joint Segmentation and Classification of Object Shapes with Feedback for 3D Point Clouds

            Authors:

            Frauke Wübbold and Bernardo Wagner

            Abstract: Limited knowledge and limited deduction abilities are among the main restraints of autonomous robots for acting truly autonomously. This especially becomes obvious in the area of object recognition and classification, where many methods rely on knowledge teached manually in a prior setup step. Self-generating this knowledge from environment perception with a set of rules would significantly increase the robots autonomy as well as supersede manual training effort. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to rule-based classification for 3D point clouds by means of object shape, which additionally overcomes typical problems from a separate prior segmentation by integrating classification feedback into the segmentation process. Although it is still in its conceptual state, we explain in detail why we consider this approach to be very promising.

            Paper Nr: 354
            Title:

            Supporting Mobile Robot’s Tasks through Qualitative Spatial Reasoning

            Authors:

            Pascal Rost, Lothar Hotz and Stephanie von Riegen

            Abstract: In this paper, we present an application of qualitative spatial reasoning technologies for supporting mobile robot tasks. While focusing on detection of interaction ability, we provide a combination of the spatial reasoning calculi RCC-8 and CDC as well as their integration with OWL-based ontologies. An architecture that uses Prolog and complex-event processing implements our approach. We illustrate the results with a mobile robot scenario in a restaurant.

            Posters
            Paper Nr: 71
            Title:

            Predictive Control of Unmanned Formations

            Authors:

            Martin Saska and Libor P?eu?il

            Abstract: A receding horizon control based approach for guiding of autonomous formations of nonholonomic robots in a leader-follower constellation is proposed in this paper. The presented method ensures dynamic obstacle avoidance, formation coordination as well as failure tolerance. The robustness of the algorithm is verified by numerical multi-robot experiments. Besides, effects of system’s parameters on the algorithm performance are investigated.

            Paper Nr: 82
            Title:

            Solving the Indoor SLAM Problem for a Low-Cost Robot using Sensor Data Fusion and Autonomous Feature-based Exploration

            Authors:

            Luciano Buonocore, Cairo Lúcio Nascimento Júnior and Areolino de Almeida Neto

            Abstract: This article is concerned with the solution of the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) problem in an indoor environment using a low-cost mobile robot that autonomously explores the environment. The robot was constructed with a distance measurement subsystem composed of three types of sensors: a wireless webcam with a laser pointer (a visual sensor), two infrared sensors and an ultrasonic TOF (time-of-flight) sensor. Firstly, an algorithm that requires a small computational load is used to fuse the noisy raw data acquired by these sensors and generate the environment features. These features are then used by a particle filter to solve the SLAM problem. An autonomous feature-based exploration algorithm was implemented and is also presented. The results obtained in the experiments carried out in two small indoor environments show that the estimated environment map generated when the robot uses the autonomous exploration algorithm is very similar to the one generated when the robot poses were manually chosen.

            Paper Nr: 124
            Title:

            Modeling and Simulation of Humanoid Robot Spine Vertebra

            Authors:

            M. Souissi, V. Hugel and P. Blazevic

            Abstract: In this paper, a parallel mechanism is proposed for the design of humanoid vertebra. This mechanism is inspired by a flight simulator system, and has been adapted and optimized to enable pitch and roll motion of a humanoid trunk at reduced energy cost. The system consists of a bottom platform and a top platform connected by two articulated arms and a vertical central rod. A 3D model of the system has been elaborated for simulation and design.

            Paper Nr: 127
            Title:

            From a Multi-robot Global Plan to Single-robot Actions

            Authors:

            Bernd Brüeggemann, Elmar Langetepe, Andreas Lenerz and Dirk Schulz

            Abstract: Planning for and coordinating robots in a multi-robot system (MRS) is crucial for optimizing the performance of the whole MRS. Thus a plan for the movement of the MRS must exist. If some centralized entity calculates the plan, it may result in one plan for the whole group. Such a global plan, which shows how the MRS can reach a goal state, has to be transformed into action guidelines for each robot. This task becomes harder if such a global plan includes dependencies caused by necessary cooperation of the robots. In this paper we present an approach to transform a global multi-robot plan into single-robot actions. We also provide a method to determine how many robots are needed to fulfil the global plan while obeying some constraints. Here we use plans generated by a coordinated navigation planner with spatial constraints, but the method could be expanded to a more general class of plans built from a centralized entity.

            Paper Nr: 130
            Title:

            On the Problem of Task Planning in Multi-robot Systems

            Authors:

            Zhi Yan, Nicolas Jouandeau and Arab Ali Cherif

            Abstract: Multi-robot task planning (MRTP) is one of the fundamental problems for multi-robot systems. An important question facing this research topic is, which robot should execute which task so as the expected overall system performance can be maximized? Many approaches have been proposed for such a purpose. This paper investigates the existing works in the field. The approaches have been surveyed and some representatives are compared with detailed results. A brief discussion and further research perspectives are also given at the end of the paper.

            Paper Nr: 150
            Title:

            Improvement of Extraction Method for Inter-turn Fault Detection in IPMSM under Transient Conditions

            Authors:

            Gyu Tae Choi, Je Won Lee, Minho Choi and Sang Woo Kim

            Abstract: Most fault detection techniques are focused on induction motors and are based on steady-state conditions. In this paper, an extraction method for inter-turn fault detection in interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) is proposed. The study is focused on an IPMSM under non-stationary conditions. The technique is formulated by modifying existing fixed frequency sinusoid tracking algorithms, which is based on an adaptive algorithm for extracting non-stationary sinusoids. The faults are determined using the motor current signature analysis technique. Simulations performed in this study validate that the proposed algorithm improves the extraction performance.

            Paper Nr: 161
            Title:

            Timed Trajectory Generation for a Vision-based Autonomous Mobile Robot in Cluttered Environments

            Authors:

            Jorge B. Silva, Cristina P. Santos and João Sequeira

            Abstract: An autonomous mobile robot should find feasible trajectories in order to avoid collisions with obstacles in its environment. This ability to plan collision-free trajectories requires two major aspects: modulation and generation of trajectories. This is especially important if temporal stabilization of the generated trajectories is considered. Temporal stabilization means to conform to the planned movement time, in spite of diversified environmental conditions or perturbations. This timing problem applied for wheeled vehicles has not been addressed in most current robotic systems. Herein, we extend our previous work by integrating an architecture able to generate timed trajectories for a wheeled mobile robot, whose goal is to reach a target location within a specified time, independently of the world complexity.

            Paper Nr: 162
            Title:

            Disassembly Planning using Visual Servoing

            Authors:

            S. T. Puente, J. Pomares and F. Torres

            Abstract: The paper presents a disassembly algorithm which computes the cost required for the automatic disassembly of a component of a product. The product is modelled using a hierarchical model that represents the relations among components. The characteristics of the product are expressed using matrices, which represents the hierarchical model and the cost of removal the unions among components. The disassembly cost of a component is computed taking the trajectory required to perform the separation of a component into consideration. This trajectory is performed using an image-based visual-servoing system. To determine the cost of these trajectories the concepts of manipulability and perceptibility are employed.

            Paper Nr: 165
            Title:

            Monte Carlo Localization using the Global Appearance of Omnidirectional Images - Algorithm Optimization to Large Indoor Environments

            Authors:

            Lorenzo Fernández, Luis Payá, David Valiente, Arturo Gil and Oscar Reinoso

            Abstract: In this paper we deal with the problem of robot localization using the visual information provided by a single omnidirectional camera mounted on the robot, using techniques based on the global appearance of panoramic images. Our main objective consists in showing the feasibility of the appearance-based approaches in a localization task in a relatively large and real environment. First, we study the approaches that permit us to describe globally the visual information so that it represents with accuracy locations in the environment. Then, we present the probabilistic approach we have used to compute the most probable pose of the robot when it performs a trajectory within the map. At the end, we describe the kind of environments and maps we have used to test our localization algorithms and the final results. The experimental results we show have been obtained using real indoor omnidirectional images, captured in an office building under real conditions.

            Paper Nr: 175
            Title:

            Design of a Rectangular-type Finger Rehabilitation Robot

            Authors:

            Gab-Soon Kim, Hyeon-Min Kim, Young-Guk Kim, Hee-Suk Shin and Jungwon Yoon

            Abstract: This paper describes the development of a finger-rehabilitation robot for rehabilitating stroke patients' fingers and other patient’s paralyzed fingers. The developed finger rehabilitation robot is composed of a thumb-rehabilitation robot instrument and four finger rehabilitation robot instruments. The finger-rehabilitation robot could exercise fingers of patient for their rehabilitation. A control characteristic test of the developed rectangular-type finger-rehabilitation robot was carried out, and the results confirmed that the robot could be used for the flexibility rehabilitation exercise for the fingers of normal person and patients.

            Paper Nr: 181
            Title:

            Facial Expression Recognition based on Facial Feature and Multi Library Wavelet Neural Network

            Authors:

            Nawel Oussaifi, Wajdi Bellil and Chokri Ben Amar

            Abstract: In this paper, we propose a wavelet neural network-based system for automatically classifying facial expressions. This system is based on Multi Library Wavelet Neural Network (MLWNN) for emotions classification. Like other methods, our approach relies on facial deformation features. Eyes, mouth and eyebrows are identified as the critical features and their feature points are extracted to recognize the emotion. After feature extraction is performed a Multi Library Wavelet Neural Network approach is used to recognize the emotions contained within the face. This approach differs from existing work in that we define two classes of expressions: active emotions (smile, surprise and fear) and passive emotions (anger, disgust and sadness). In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed system for the facial expression recognition, its performances are compared with other systems.

            Paper Nr: 194
            Title:

            Simultaneous Control of Translational and Rotational Motion for Autonomous Omnidirectional Mobile Robot - 2nd Report: Robot Model Considering Moving Parts and Evaluation of Movable Area by Heights

            Authors:

            Ayanori Yorozu, Takafumi Suzuki, Matsumura Tetsuya and Masaki Takahashi

            Abstract: This paper presents a real time collision avoidance method for an autonomous omnidirectional mobile robot considering shape of the robot and movable area by heights based on simultaneous control of translational and rotational motion. Service robots which have been developed in recent years have arms to work and execute tasks. In these robots, the size of width is sometimes not equal to that of length by heights. In order to avoid obstacles considering safety and mobility for the robots, it is necessary to evaluate shape of the robot and movable area by heights. To evaluate them, the robot model is defined in heights of each moving part. Evaluating of the robot model and the movable area for each height, if the robot is unable to move keeping a safe distance from the obstacles, the robot determines the suitable orientation angle considering the minimum length from the center of the robot model to that outer shape. In this paper, the novel control method based on the Fuzzy Potential Method is presented. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, several numerical simulations are carried out.

            Paper Nr: 196
            Title:

            Total Intelligent Life-Saving System against Earthquake and “Tsunami” - Disaster Medical Engineering from Protection to Care in Catastrophe

            Authors:

            Ichiro Fukumoto, Taku Sahashi and Akira Sahashi

            Abstract: Japan has suffered from earthquakes and Tsunami 4 times since 1995. The economical loss reached to 25 thousand billion Yen and the number of the victims was more than 26,000. In order to prepare the future catastrophe we have decided to recruit multidisciplinary regions of science and engineering and we have founded a research group “The society of disaster medical engineering” for life saving techniques under natural disasters in 2004. The research subjects are wide from the phase-0 (Protection) to the phase-3 (medical care) that include from emergency alarms to rescue robot as well as the active Tsunami protection systems. The phase-0 includes earthquake/Tsunami proof, safety box and disaster communication system. As the phase-1 we have composed universal alarming system as well as handy Braille communicator. Rescue Robot and other life saving systems are important instruments for the phase-2. Finally the phase-3 aims automatic support for the medical care in refuge shelters.

            Paper Nr: 202
            Title:

            A Novel Approach to Measure under Water Vehicle Disturbance Force for Station Keeping Control

            Authors:

            J. Manecius Selvakumar and T. Asokan

            Abstract: Maintenance of target position and/or orientation is essential for underwater vehicles (UWV) to successfully complete a mission. However, in the case of work class vehicles, station keeping becomes an important issue due to the presence of disturbance forces and requires effective feedback mechanism to maintain the pose. Conventionally, the changes in position due to disturbance force is monitored and fed back to the station keeping controller to make necessary corrections. This introduces unnecessary delay in response and continuous variations in vehicle position. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a disturbance force measurement setup using strain gauges which will directly measure the disturbance forces which can be used for predicting the vehicle pose disturbance and make necessary corrections even before the vehicle starts responding to the disturbance forces. The methodology adopted for force measurement is presented and experimental analysis has shown promising results. This approach can be used as an alternative feedback mechanism for station keeping control of underwater Vehicles.

            Paper Nr: 234
            Title:

            Hardware in the Loop Module to Calculate Production Indicators

            Authors:

            Mildred J. Puerto, Josu Larrañaga, Ulrich Doll and Damien Sallé

            Abstract: Currently Hardware in the Loop (HIL) is a powerful tool in manufacturing planning. A HIL module for manufacturing must include the dynamics of a critical machine, the logical control signals and the production sequence information. By this way Hardware in the Loop can provide a complete set of possible cycletimes, due the module capability to change delays times, sizes of the workpieces and problems in the parts or in the logic states. All this information could be re-used for manufacturers to improve factory designs or by other management modules to improve production indicators under the Virtual Factory Framework European project framework. Due to the level of detailed dynamics required in Hardware in the Loop simulations, it is suggested to integrate information from the multibody dynamic simulations programmed at the design level.

            Paper Nr: 238
            Title:

            Programming of a Mobile Robotic Manipulator through Demonstration

            Authors:

            Lorenzo Peppoloni and Alessandro Di Fava

            Abstract: This paper presents an integrated robotic system capable of learning and executing manipulation tasks from a single human user’s demonstration. The system capabilities are threefold. The system learns tasks from perceptual stimuli, models and stores the information in the form of semantic knowledge. The system may employ the model achieved to execute task in an way similar to the example shown and adapt the motion to robot own constraints in terms of physical limits and interferences. The system integrates perception and action algorithms in order to autonomously extrapolate the context in which to operate. It robustly changes its behavior according to the environment evolution. The performances of the system have been verified through a series of tests. The tests run on the Kuka youBot platform and all the tools and algorithms are integrated into Willow Garage ”Robotic Operating System” (ROS).

            Paper Nr: 247
            Title:

            Improved Leader Follower Formation Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles using State Estimation

            Authors:

            Umesh Neettiyath and Asokan Thondiyath

            Abstract: Multi robot coordination and control for underwater robots is an area of significant importance in many underwater missions. A new approach for leader follower formation control of multi AUV systems is explored in this paper. The controller estimates the next desired position of the follower robot from the past and current positions of the leader and follower robots. The control signals are then issued to the follower robot to align it to the estimated trajectory. This control scheme has the capability to compensate for initial errors and follow the leader under various operational scenarios. The development of the controller and simulation results for selected scenarios are presented. The results show that the proposed method is simple and computationally efficient.

            Paper Nr: 258
            Title:

            Improving Stereo Vision Odometry for Mobile Robots in Outdoor Dynamic Environments

            Authors:

            Dan Pojar and Sergiu Nedevschi

            Abstract: This article presents a method for localization able to provide the pose in 3D using stereo vision. The method offers a better and inexpensive alternative to classical localization methods such as wheel odometry or GPS. Using only a calibrated stereo camera, the method integrates both optical flow based motion computation and SURF features detector for stereo reconstruction and motion computation. Robustness is obtained by finding correspondences using both feature descriptors and RANSAC inlier selection for the reconstructed points. Least squares optimization is used to obtain the final computed motion. World scale pose estimation is obtained by computing successive motion vectors characterized through their orientation and magnitude. The method involves fast algorithms capable to function at real time frequency. We present results supporting global consistency, localization performance and speed as well as the robustness of the approach by testing it in unmodified, real life, very crowded outdoor dynamic environments.

            Paper Nr: 269
            Title:

            Robust Control of Excavation Mobile Robot with Dynamic Triangulation Vision

            Authors:

            Alexander Gurko, Wilmar Hernandez, Oleg Sergiyenko, Vera Tyrsa, Juan Ivan Nieto Hipólito, Daniel Hernandez Balbuena and Paolo Mercorelli

            Abstract: The problem of control system synthesis for excavation works autonomous mobile robot on the basis of the game approach is considered. Vision function and spatial orientation of the robot is realized by the dynamic triangulation laser vision system. It is assumed that the real state of the object belongs to the certain set of potential states in the form of polyhedron. Simulation results and functional ability analysis for the proposed control system are concluded.

            Paper Nr: 295
            Title:

            Autonomous Navigation of an Outdoor Mobile Robot in a Cluttered Environment

            Authors:

            Amir Monjazeb, Jurek Z. Sasiadek and Dan Necsulescu

            Abstract: This paper proposes a modification of HybridSLAM strategy that is used to navigate an outdoor autonomous mobile robot in a cluttered environment. HybridSLAM is combining extended Kalman filter SLAM EKF-SLAM and FastSLAM to take advantage of strengths and to cover shortcomings of both filters. By the use of an unscented version of Kalman filter instead of EKF-SLAM, the formulation of the HybridSLAM is revised. Same as HybridSLAM, the new revised algorithm uses the state distribution capabilities of the unscented Kalman filter to keep the uncertainty of the system to be remembered for a long trajectory, and at each time step, FastSLAM is used to produce local maps. Presented simulations and results evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using Unscented Kalman filter in a cluttered environment.

            Paper Nr: 328
            Title:

            Development of a Wheelchair with a Lifting Function

            Authors:

            Yoshikazu Mori, Norikatsu Sakai and Kaoru Katsumura

            Abstract: A wheelchair with a lifting function is designed to assist a caregiver when transferring a wheelchair user not only indoors but also outdoors. The target user is typically a severely disabled person with disabled upper and lower limbs, and therefore needs the physical support when using a toilet or transferring from a bed to a wheelchair and so forth. Both the wheelchair and the lift are driven by their respective motors. The user can approach above the toilet stool or the bed from the rear because the large driving wheels are located in front of the body and the seat can be folded. This wheelchair is allowed to travel on public roads because of the mechanism of folding the frame for lifting. This paper presents the concept design and the experimental results of a full-sized prototype wheelchair with the lifting function, which confirms the design effectiveness.

            Area 3 - Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modelling and Control

            Full Papers
            Paper Nr: 18
            Title:

            Efficient Distributed Fusion Filtering Algorithms for Multiple Time Delayed Systems

            Authors:

            Il Young Song and Moongu Jeon

            Abstract: In this paper, we provide two computational effective multi sensor fusion filtering algorithms for discrete-time linear uncertain systems with state and observation time delays. The first algorithm is shaped by algebraic forms for multi rate sensor systems, and then we propose a matrix form of filtering equations using block matrices. The second algorithm is based on exact cross-covariance equations. These equations are useful to compute matrix weights for fusion estimation in a multidimensional-multisensor environment. Also, our proposed filtering algorithm is based on the receding horizon strategy in order to achieve high estimation accuracy and stability under parametric uncertainties. We demonstrate the low computational complexities of the proposed fusion filtering algorithm and how the proposed algorithm robust against dynamic model uncertainties comparing with Kalman filter with time delays.

            Paper Nr: 29
            Title:

            On Specification Informatics in Discrete-event Systems - State-transparency for Clarity of Finite Automata as Control Specifications

            Authors:

            Amrith Dhananjayan and Kiam Tian Seow

            Abstract: In control of discrete-event systems (DES’s), the formalization of control requirements from natural language statements is essentially a human endeavor. Without automated support tools, human designers often face the uncertainty of not knowing if the control requirements formalized in the rudimentary DES formalism of automata are as intended, motivating the automata-theoretic study of specification informatics in the field of DES’s. A specification automaton that renders its linguistic description more transparent should help designers ascertain the prescribed requirement. Such transparency may be formalized in either the state space or the event space of the DES. In this paper, treating the former as fundamental, a state-transparent specification automaton is conceptualized with respect to a full specification automaton (‘full’ in the sense of having all the a priori transitional constraints of the DES embedded in it). It contains only specification relevant states called specification epochs. Each epoch denotes a “well-defined” disjoint subset of states of the full specification automaton in the same phase of execution, meaningfully aggregated such that the resultant specification automaton retains the original restrictiveness on the DES. The problem of maximizing the state-transparency of specification automata for DES’s is then theoretically formulated. Subject to human perceptive or cognition limits, we believe that such a maximally state-transparent specification automaton could be more comprehensible, showing clearly the compliant execution of the system through a minimum number of specification epochs, and should aid designers in clarifying if the requirement prescribed is the one intended.

            Paper Nr: 72
            Title:

            Contact-free Magnetic Clutch Applied for Flywheel Cell System

            Authors:

            Nan-Chyuan Tsai and Hong-Seng Aw

            Abstract: A TDOF (Two Degrees of Freedom) Servo Gap-Retained Mechanism (SGRM) is proposed and verified by experiments. It consists of a flywheel and an Intelligent Posture Tracking System (IPTS). The flywheel is regarded as the tracking objective of the IPTS. The IPTS is mainly composed by an intelligent disc and two pairs of Hybrid Magnetic Actuators (HMAs). The posture of the intelligent disc is controlled by the magnetic forces induced by the HMAs to retain a constant gap with respect to the eccentric flywheel. Since the HMA is highly nonlinear, a Feedback-Linearized Sliding Mode Control (FLSMC) is synthesized to account for system parameter nonlinearities. The proposed SGRM is part of the flywheel cell system. When the MGU (Motor/Generator Unit) in flywheel cell operates at idle mode, the shaft of flywheel will be separated from MGU in order to avoid the energy loss of the flywheel by the back EMF induced by the magnetic field of MGU. The shaft of flywheel and MGU still need to maintain synchronous power transmission so that a contact-free clutch has to be equipped. The role of SGRM in a flywheel cell is to ensure the centerline of the flywheel properly is aligned with the magnetic clutch. Intensive experimental simulations are undertaken to verify the feasibility of the proposed SGRM and FLSMC.

            Paper Nr: 103
            Title:

            Modeling and Simulation of a Wastewater Pumping Plant

            Authors:

            Mohamed Abdelati, Felix Felgner and Georg Frey

            Abstract: Modeling wastewater pumping plants is rarely addressed in the literature. Standard component models as found in fluid simulation tool libraries are too complex, due to their projected generality, to be used for these applications. Lack of models results in a burden on engineers who have to test their control scenarios on real implemented systems. This may lead to unexpected delays and painful costs. In this work, easily manageable component-oriented models are derived and applied to the modeling and simulation of a real wastewater pumping system. The model derived in this paper is implemented in Modelica, and it helps better understanding the system dynamics. Thereby, a tool is provided for evaluating the performance of possible control schemes.

            Paper Nr: 195
            Title:

            Support Vector Machines for Identification of HCCI Combustion Dynamics

            Authors:

            Vijay Manikandan Janakiraman, Jeff Sterniak and Dennis Assanis

            Abstract: Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promising technology for Internal Combustion Engines to improve efficiency and reduce nitrogen oxides emissions. Control of HCCI combustion is often model-based, and it is vital to have a good model of the engine to make control decisions. The HCCI engine is characterized by complex chemical kinetics whose physical modeling is difficult and laborious. Identification is an effective alternative to quickly develop control oriented models for such systems. This paper formulates a Support Vector Regression (SVR) methodology for developing identification models capturing HCCI combustion behavior. Measurable quantities from the engine such as net mean effective pressure (NMEP) and crank angle at 50% mass fraction burned (CA50) can be used to characterize and control the HCCI engine and are considered for identification in this study. The selected input variables include injected fuel mass (FM) and valve events {intake valve opening (IVO), exhaust valve closing (EVC)}. Transient data from a gasoline HCCI engine recorded at stable HCCI conditions is used for training, validating and testing the SVR models. Comparisons with the experimental results show that SVR with Gaussian kernels can be a powerful approach for identification of a complex combustion system like the HCCI engine.

            Paper Nr: 240
            Title:

            Handling Delayed Fusion in Vision-Augmented Inertial Navigation

            Authors:

            Ehsan Asadi and Carlo L. Bottasso

            Abstract: In this paper we consider the effects of delay caused by real-time image acquisition and feature tracking in a previously documented Vision-Augmented Inertial Navigation System. At first, the paper illustrates how delay caused by image processing, if not explicitly taken into account, can lead to appreciable performance degradation of the estimator. Next, three different existing methods of delayed fusion are considered and compared. Simulations and Monte Carlo analyses are used to assess the estimation error and computational effort of the various methods. Finally, a best performing formulation is identified, that properly handles the fusion of delayed measurements in the estimator without increasing the time burden of the filter.

            Paper Nr: 282
            Title:

            Self-scheduled H#INF# Control of a Wind Turbine - A Real Time Implementation

            Authors:

            Florin Sebastian Tudor, Dumitru Popescu and Dan Stefanoiu

            Abstract: This paper is concerned with the design of robust gain-scheduled controllers with guaranteed H∞ performance for a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) with variable-speed and fixed-pitch. The control problem in terms of Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) plants is stated and the theoretical background of the design method is given. Due to some interesting properties outlined in this paper, the synthesis problem is reduced to solving off-line a finite-dimensional set of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), making the controller suited for real-time applications. The computed LPV controller focuses on multiple objectives such as mechanical fatigue reduction, speed regulation and mode stabilization with simultaneously maximizing energy capture. The performances obtained through this control method are discussed and presented by means of a set of simulations. A real-time control algorithm for the large-scale wind turbines is also proposed.

            Paper Nr: 289
            Title:

            Cost Functions for Scheduling Tasks in Cyber-physical Systems

            Authors:

            Abhinna Jain, C. M. Krishna, Israel Koren and Zahava Koren

            Abstract: In Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), computational delays can cause the controlled plant to exhibit degraded control. The traditional approach to scheduling in such systems has been to define controller task deadlines, based on the dynamics of the controlled plant. Controller tasks are then scheduled to meet these deadlines; meeting the deadline is considered the sole criterion for scheduling success.\\ This traditional approach has the advantage of simplicity, but overlooks the fact that the quality of control depends on the actual task response times. Two different schedules, each satisfying the task deadlines, can provide very different levels of control quality, if their task response times are different.\\ In this paper, we consider using cost functions of task response time to capture the impact of computational delay on the quality of control. Since the controller workload typically consists of multiple tasks, these cost functions are multivariate in nature. Furthermore, since these tasks are generally coupled, the response time of one control task can affect the sensitivity of the controlled plant to the response times of other tasks.\\ In this paper, we first demonstrate how a multivariate cost function can be formulated to quantify the effect of computational delays in vehicles. We then develop cost-sensitive real-time control task scheduling algorithms. We use as an application example an automobile: the controller workload consists of steering and torque control. Our results indicate that cost-function-based scheduling provides superior control to the traditional deadline-only-based approach.

            Short Papers
            Paper Nr: 25
            Title:

            Flow Optimization for Iron Ore Reclaiming Process

            Authors:

            Bruno Eduardo Lopes, José Pinheiro de Moura, Denis Anderson Ribeiro, Fernando Henrique Costa e Borges and Marco Antônio de Souza

            Abstract: The purpose of the this paper is to demonstrate the optimization of the flow for the iron ore reclaiming process by reclaimers over rails using implementation of PID control algorithms, identification techniques, Predictive Control and a new effort-based learning method herein called reinforcement by difference learning method and proportional reinforcement learning method. The outcome was an increase of productivity, with reduction of the flow variability and on the amount of overflow occurrences.

            Paper Nr: 53
            Title:

            Using Linear Systems Theory to Study Nonlinear Dynamics of Relay Cells

            Authors:

            Rahul Agarwal and Sridevi V. Sarma

            Abstract: Relay cells are prevalent throughout sensory systems and receive two types of inputs: driving and modulating. The driving input contains receptive field properties that must be relayed while the modulating input alters the reliability of this relay. In this paper, we analyze a biophysical based nonlinear model of a relay cell and use systems theoretic tools to construct analytic bounds on how well the cell transmits a driving input as a function of the neuron’s electrophysiological properties, the modulating input, and the driving signal parameters. Our analysis applies to both 2nd & 3rd order model as long as the neuron does not spike without a driving input pulse and exhibits a refractory period. Our bounds suggest, for instance, that if the frequency of the modulating input increases and the DC offset decreases, then reliability increases. Our analysis also shows how the biophysical properties of the neuron (e.g. ion channel dynamics) define the oscillatory patterns needed in the modulating input for appropriately timed relay of sensory information.

            Paper Nr: 56
            Title:

            Nonparametric Identification of Nonlinearity in Wiener-Hammerstein Systems

            Authors:

            Grzegorz Mzyk

            Abstract: In the paper we recover the static characteristic of Wiener-Hammerstein (sandwich) system from input-output data. The system is excited and disturbed by random processes with arbitrary distribution. Two kernel-based estimates are proposed and compared. It is shown that they can successfully recover the system characteristic under small amount of a priori information about the static characteristic and the surrounding dynamic blocks. The identified nonlinear function is not parametrized and is not assumed to be invertible, which is common restriction in the literature. The orders of linear dynamic blocks are also unknown. The convergence of the estimates take place for the points in which the input probability density function in positive. The effectiveness of the algorithms is illustrated in simulation example.

            Paper Nr: 89
            Title:

            Load-following Control of APR+ Nuclear Reactors

            Authors:

            Jae Hwan Kim, Man Gyun Na, Keuk Jong Yu and Han Gon Kim

            Abstract: The load-following operation of APR+ reactor is needed to control the power effectively using the control rods and to restrain the reactivity control from using the boric acid for flexibility of plant operation. The xenon has a very high absorption cross-section and makes the impact on the reactor delayed by the iodine precursor. The power maneuvering using automatically load-following operation has advantage in terms of safety and economic operation of the reactor. Therefore, an advanced control method that meets the conditions such as automatic control, flexibility, safety, and convenience is necessary to load-following operation of APR+ reactor. In this paper, the MPC method is applied to design APR+ reactor’s automatic load-following controller for the integrated average coolant temperature and ASI control. The KISPAC-1D code, which models the APR+ nuclear power plants, is interfaced to the proposed controller to verify the tracking performance of the average coolant temperature and ASI. It is known that the proposed controller exhibits very fast tracking responses.

            Paper Nr: 90
            Title:

            A Fault-Tolerant Controller for an SP-100 Space Nuclear Reactor

            Authors:

            Ju Hyun Kim, Dae Seup Kim and Man Gyun Na

            Abstract: The control system is a key element of space reactor design to meet the space mission requirements of safety, reliability, survivability, economics, and autonomous action. The objectives of the proposed model predictive control are to minimize both the difference between the predicted TE power and the desired power, and the variation of control drum angle that adjusts the control reactivity. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the model predictive controller. The model predictive controller is integrated with a fault detection and diagnostics algorithm so that the controller can work properly even under input and output measurement faults. Simulation results of the proposed controller show that the TE generator power level controlled by the proposed controller could track the target power level effectively even under measurement faults, satisfying all control constraints.

            Paper Nr: 145
            Title:

            Smart Walker Control through the Inference of the User’s Command Intentions

            Authors:

            M. Martins, A. Frizera, C. Santos and R. Ceres

            Abstract: In this work is presented the NeoASAS walker including its conceptual design, implementation and validation with a new interface approach integrated. This interface is based on a joystick and it is intended to extract the user’s movement intentions. Eleven healthy users performed preliminary sets of experiments with the walker, which showed the sensibility of the joystick to extract command intentions from the user. These signals presented a higher frequency component that was attenuated by a Benedict-Bordner filter. Then, an approach to the control architecture was developed, in order to obtain stable and safe user assistance. This control architecture is based on a fuzzy logic control that allows the control of the walkers’ motors. Thus, an assistive device to provide safety and natural manoeuvrability was conceived and offers a certain degree of intelligence in assistance and decision-making. The motivation is that this will contribute to improve rehabilitation purposes by promoting ambulatory daily exercises and thus extend users’ independent living.

            Paper Nr: 147
            Title:

            From PID to Extended Learning Control

            Authors:

            Cristiano Maria Verrelli

            Abstract: It has been recently shown in Marino, Tomei, and Verrelli (2011) that the output error feedback regulation problem with (unknown) periodic reference and/or disturbance signals of known common period can be effectively solved for the class of single-input, single-output, minimum phase, nonlinear, time-invariant systems in output feedback form (of known relative degree one or two) which are affected by unknown parameters and unknown output-dependent nonlinearities. The resulting nonlinear control, which relies on advanced learning control techniques, can be interpreted as a generalization of the classical PID control which solves the problem when both reference and disturbance signals are constant. In this paper, we present sophisticated analytical arguments which prove that the learning control designed in Marino, Tomei, and Verrelli (2011) can be endowed with a period identifier when the output reference signal is periodic of uncertain period but available at each time instant. The generalized resulting control preserves the achievement of the closed loop properties obtained in Marino, Tomei, and Verrelli (2011) while maintaining an overall simple structure. The application of the presented control techniques to the position synchronization problem for current-fed permanent magnet step motors with non-sinusoidal flux distribution and uncertain position-dependent load torque allows us to provide a solution to a yet unsolved problem.

            Paper Nr: 170
            Title:

            Identification of Polytopic Models for a Linear Parameter-varying System Performed on a Vehicle

            Authors:

            Raluca Liacu, Dominique Beauvois and Emmanuel Godoy

            Abstract: This paper deals with the parameter identification of continuous time polytopic models for a linear parameter-varying system (LPV). A continuous-time nonlinear identification approach is presented, a mix between a local approach and a global one is introduced in order to identify a LPV model for the lateral comportement of a vehicle. The proposed approach is based on the prediction error method for LTI systems, which is modified to take into account polytopic models and regularization terms. Using experimental data, different parameter-varying structures, explaining the lateral behavior of the vehicle, were identified by the proposed method considering the velocity as the scheduling parameter.

            Paper Nr: 184
            Title:

            Adaptive Data Update Management in Sensor Networks

            Authors:

            C. M. Krishna

            Abstract: Transmitting messages is by far the most energy-intensive thing that most sensors do. We consider the problem of a sensor which regularly senses some parameter in its operating environment. Based on the value it knows to have been estimated at the base station (or other central information collation station) for that parameter, the actual sensed value, its remaining energy levels, and other quantities such as the time-to-go in the mission (if limited) or the anticipated energy inflow (if energy harvesting is used), it decides whether that sensed value is worth transmitting. We present heuristics to make this decision and evaluate their performance.

            Paper Nr: 187
            Title:

            State Dependent Parameter Modelling of a DC-DC Boost Converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode

            Authors:

            U. Hitzemann and K. J. Burnham

            Abstract: This paper is concerned with themodelling of a DC-DC boost converter, operating in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). The approach chosen is to model the converter using a state-dependent parameter (SDP) model approach which is expected to be able to deal with the nonlinearities of the system, as well as a varying load. The modelling procedure presented, makes use of input-output data only and no physical insight into the system is required. Results are verified via laboratory experiments.

            Paper Nr: 191
            Title:

            Wave Vibration Analysis of Classical Multi-story Planar Frames

            Authors:

            C. Mei

            Abstract: This paper concerns free vibration analysis of in-plane vibrations in classical multi-story planar frame structures. An exact analytical solution is obtained using wave vibration approach. The coupling effects between bending and longitudinal vibrations in frames are taken into account. Classical beam theories are applied in modeling the flexural and longitudinal vibrations. Reflection matrices at “sliding” and “rolling” boundaries, as well as reflection and transmission matrices at the “L” and “T” joints are obtained. Numerical examples are presented along with comparisons to results available in literature.

            Paper Nr: 214
            Title:

            Hyper-elastic Pressure Sensors - Temperature Dependence of Piezoresistivity of Polyisoprene – Nanostructured Carbon Composite

            Authors:

            Juris Zavickis, Maris Knite, Artis Linarts and Raimonds Orlovs

            Abstract: Our previous efforts revealed polyisoprene-nanostructured carbon composite as prospective sensitive material for elaboration of entirely hyper-elastic piezoresistive pressure sensor element. In this article we investigate the temperature dependence on initial electrical resistivity as well as piezoresistive properties of such material and self-elaborated hyper-elastic pressure sensing element. Certain conclusions about the effect of temperature on electroconductive structure and piezoresistivity are made.

            Paper Nr: 215
            Title:

            State Estimation and Send on Delta Strategy Codesign for Networked Control Systems

            Authors:

            Ignacio Peñarrocha, Daniel Dolz, Julio A. Romero and Roberto Sanchis

            Abstract: In this work, a new strategy to minimize the use of the network in state estimation over networks is addressed, leading to a co-design procedure of both the observer and the policy for message sending. The sensor nodes implements a send-on-delta approach, sending new data only when there is a considerable deviation from the last sent measurement. The estimator node implements a gain scheduling approach that takes into account the availability of new received data. The performance of the observer is analyzed through H¥ norm in both deterministic and stochastic data transfer rate. This norm is used to design both the observer gains and the output variations that induce the sensors to send new outputs to the estimator node, while guaranteeing a given level of performance on the state estimation error. The design approach is based on an optimization procedure with linear and bilinear matrix inequalities constraints that is solved iteratively.

            Paper Nr: 220
            Title:

            Performance Evaluation of Discrete Event Systems Thanks to New Representations for (max,+) Automata

            Authors:

            Rabah Boukra, Sébastien Lahaye and Jean-Louis Boimond

            Abstract: In this contribution, we study the performances of discrete event systems modeled by (max,+) automata. More precisely, new representations for (max,+) automata are first proposed. From these, several performance indicators can be derived, in particular the maximum time execution and a minorant of the minimum execution time for a sequence of length n. Finally these results are discussed in comparison with several studies of the literature also dealing with performance evaluation of (max,+) automata.

            Paper Nr: 223
            Title:

            Nonlinear Deterministic Methods for Computer Aided Diagnosis in Case of Kidney Diseases

            Authors:

            Andreea Udrea, Mihai Tanase and Dumitru Popescu

            Abstract: This paper proposes a set of nonlinear deterministic methods derived from chaos theory that can serve as computed aided diagnosis tools for kidney diseases based on computer topographies (CT). These procedures target the classification of the analyzed tissue samples in normal, malign and benign affected and also enhanced visualization of the CT images. The classification methods consist in estimating the fractal dimension of the kidney tissue and, respectively, the correlation dimension of the attractor obtained from the spatial series associated to the kidney image. The enhanced visualization method associates a fractal map to the analysed image. The methods are tested on 120 CTs presenting normal and modified tissue. The degree of trustworthiness of the methods while dealing with classifications is discussed based on statistical results and samples of fractal maps associated to the images are also presented.

            Paper Nr: 233
            Title:

            Using Forward-backward Contractors to Identify Parasitic Parameters of Electrical Circuits Working in High Frequency

            Authors:

            Nacim Meslem, Cécile Labarre and Stéphane Lecoeuche

            Abstract: Parasitic parameters in electrical networks are usually sources of intolerant electromagnetic interference in their near environment. In order to understand better the undesirable phenomenon, the values of these unknown parameters must be estimated with a good accuracy. This work shows how interval analysis can help designing set-membership algorithm that is able to solve with numerical guarantee the kind of issue. A simple example, namely second order filter, is studied and our method shows promising performances for dealing with complex circuits.

            Paper Nr: 257
            Title:

            On the Bus Priority Dilemma: Modelling and Analysis of Congested Traffic Network using Coloured Petri Nets and (Min,+) Algebra

            Authors:

            Hamza Boukhentiche, Abdeljalil Abbas-turki and Abdellah El Moudni

            Abstract: In this paper, a mathematical approach for modeling and analysis the bus priority system is introduced. The main objective is to highlight the bus priority dilemma in a congested traffic network. The study of the bus priority needs to consider the two kinds of vehicles that move on the same segment. Based on coloured Petri net and (min, +) algebra, a new proposition is introduced to consider mutually the two vehicle kinds in a given hybrid segment. Afterwards and for analysis, we propose two new constraints that model the delay and the waiting time of a vehicle in this exotic algebra. Thus, an equation which relates the bus delay and the traffic lights switching using (min,+) algebra is formulated. In order to provide us with interesting performance evaluation, an example is worked out to highlight this dilemma.

            Paper Nr: 260
            Title:

            Applying Hyperbolic Wavelets in Frequency Domain Identification

            Authors:

            Alexandros Soumelidis, József Bokor and Ferenc Schipp

            Abstract: The paper elaborates a hyperbolic wavelet construction for representing signals in the Hardy space H2 on the unit disc. An efficient computing scheme based on the matrix form of the representation is worked out. The wavelet coefficients can be computed on the basis of discrete time–domain measurements. This wavelet is used to reconstruct poles of functions in H2 as the basis of nonparametric frequency–domain identification of discrete–time signals and systems.

            Paper Nr: 280
            Title:

            GFIS: Genetic Fuzzy Inference System for Speech Recognition

            Authors:

            Washington Luis Santos Silva and Ginalber Luiz de Oliveira Serra

            Abstract: The concept of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic is widely used to propose of several methods applied to systems modeling, classification and pattern recognition problem. This paper proposes a genetic-fuzzy recognition system for speech recognition. In addition to pre-processing, with mel-cepstral coefficients, the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used to generate a two-dimensional time matrix for each pattern to be recognized. A genetic algorithms is used to optimize a Mamdani fuzzy inference system in order to obtain the best model for final recognition. The speech recognition system used in this paper was named Genetic Fuzzy Inference System for Speech Recognition (GFIS). Experimental results for speech recognition applied to brazilian language show the efficiency of the proposed methodology compared to methodologies widely used and cited in the literature.

            Paper Nr: 302
            Title:

            Block Triangular Decoupling of General Neutral Multi Delay Systems

            Authors:

            Fotis N. Koumboulis and Nikolaos D. Kouvakas

            Abstract: The problem of block triangular decoupling is studied for the case of general neutral multi delay systems. The system is not restricted to be square and invertible. The controller is of the general neutral dynamic type involving a dynamic feedback and dynamic precompensator. Two different cases of feedback are studied. The first is the case of measurable output feedback and second is the case of performance output feedback. The controller is restricted to be realizable. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the problem to be solvable are established. The general class of the realizable controllers solving the problem is derived. The closed loop transfer function is proven to have arbitrary characteristic polynomial thus facilitating command tracking and stability.

            Paper Nr: 346
            Title:

            On the Design of Change-driven Data-flow Algorithms and Architectures for High-speed Motion Analysis

            Authors:

            Jose A. Boluda, Pedro Zuccarello, Fernando Pardo and Francisco Vegara

            Abstract: Motion analysis is a computationally demanding task due to the large amount of data involved as well as the complexity of the implicated algorithms. In this position paper we present some ideas about data-flow architectures for processing visual information. Selective Change Driven (SCD) is based on a CMOS sensor which delivers, ordered by the absolute magnitude of its change, only the pixels that have changed after the last time they were read-out. As a natural step, a processing architecture based on processing pixels in a data-flow method, instead of processing complete frames, is presented. A data-flow FPGA-based architecture is appointed in developing such concepts.

            Posters
            Paper Nr: 26
            Title:

            Nonlinear Analysis of Costas Loop Circuit

            Authors:

            N. V. Kuznetsov, G. A. Leonov, M. V. Yuldashev and R. V. Yuldashev

            Abstract: Problems of rigorous mathematical analysis of Costas Loop are considered. The analytical method for phase detector characteristics computation is proposed and new classes of phase detector characteristics are computed for the first time. Effective methods for nonlinear analysis of Costas Loop are discussed.

            Paper Nr: 36
            Title:

            Modeling and Simulation of a Temperature Robust Control in Grain Drying Systems for Thermal Damage Reduction

            Authors:

            Josenalde B. de Oliveira, Marcus V. A. Fernandes and Leonardo R. L. Teixeira

            Abstract: Informatics plays an imperative role in the designing and tuning of new control systems strategies, since the computational simulation of such systems is part of the entire process of applying an algorithm on a real environment. This paper presents an alternative to the Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (PID) controller for temperature control in grain drying systems. The PID controller may present undesirable oscillations in the presence of external disturbances associated with agroindustrial facilities, thus demanding a precise and automatic tuning during the entire process. Robust controllers are suitable and recommended for the drying final quality, since the grains are offered a thermal damage reduction when submitted to abrupt temperature variations, as fragility and even crack during processing. Simulation results on an experimental model of a nonlinear robust controller, named Shunt Indirect Variable Structure Model Reference Adaptive Controller (SIVS-MRAC) are shown. Performance results before disturbances and parametric variations are compared with the PID behaviour.

            Paper Nr: 39
            Title:

            Positive Realization of Continuous Linear Systems with Order Bound

            Authors:

            Kyungsup Kim and Jaecheol Ryou

            Abstract: This paper discusses the realization problem of a class of linear-invariant system, in which state variables, input and output are restricted to be nonnegative to reflect physical constraints. This paper presents an efficient and general algorithm of positive realization for positive continuous-time linear systems in the case of transfer function with (multiple) real or complex poles. The solution of the corresponding problem for continuous-time positive is deduced from the discrete-time case by a transformation. We deal with the positive realization problem through convex cone analysis. We provide a simple general and unified construction method for the positive realization of the transfer function, which has multiple poles, upper-bound and a sparse realization matrix. We consider a sufficient condition of positive realization.

            Paper Nr: 50
            Title:

            Fluidity Measuring Device for the Concrete using Laser Diode Controller via WSN

            Authors:

            Bo Hee Lee

            Abstract: Presented is a high performance device for the measurement of concrete fluidity using Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). This device is an improvement over the existing method of manual measurement which is subject to significant human-induced error. Using this device we can make measurements automatically and analyze the information simultaneously for the concrete fluidity. In this paper we present a novel device utilizing laser sensors and wireless data acquisition including driving mechanism. The effectiveness of the device is verified through experiment.

            Paper Nr: 59
            Title:

            Control and Model Parameters Identification of Inertia Wheel Pendulum

            Authors:

            Pawe? Drapikowski, Jaros?aw Go?liński and Adam Owczarkowski

            Abstract: This paper presents control method of an inverted pendulum with an inertial drive (IWP Inertia Wheel Pendulum). This is a non-linear, underactuated mechanical system and therefore it has more degrees of freedom than control variables. In application, electric motor has been placed on the pendulum top and it is a source of torque, which accelerates the flywheel. Position of the pendulum depends on the acceleration of the flywheel. This paper shows algorithm for the real object to keep the inertia wheel pendulum in the vertical position at equilibrium point. In order to achive this aim, authors decided to concentrate on modern and advanced techniques of control and estimation such as LQR regulator, sensor fusion, extended Kalman Filter and model parameters identification.

            Paper Nr: 60
            Title:

            Use of Flow Control on Car Dumpers - A Case of Success at Vale

            Authors:

            Bruno Eduardo Lopes and Luis Freitas Coutinho

            Abstract: The flow control of the car dumper (VV, in Portuguese) used to be done in open loop, i.e., operators used to manually adjust the speed of the feeders (AL, in Portuguese) to make the actual flow equal to the desired flow. The problem was that these manual adjustments were not always performed properly and the result was a loss in productivity and the occurrence of overflow on the feeders. This work demonstrates the techniques of control, modelling and identification used for the implementation of flow control in closed loop in the car dumpers at the Ponta da Madeira Maritime Terminal, Vale.

            Paper Nr: 115
            Title:

            A Study of the Impact of Computational Delays in Missile Interception Systems

            Authors:

            Ye Xu, Israel Koren and C. M. Krishna

            Abstract: Most publications discussing missile interception systems assume a zero computer response time. This paper studies the impact of computer response time on single-missile single-target and multiple- missile multiple-target systems. Simulation results for the final miss distance as the computer response time increases are presented. A simple online cooperative adjustment model for multiple-missile multiple-target system is presented for the purpose of studying the computer delay effect.

            Paper Nr: 137
            Title:

            Operating System Core as Template for Embedded System Software Development

            Authors:

            Leonardo Jelenkovic and Domagoj Jakobovic

            Abstract: Software development for embedded systems is a fast growing industry. Development for a mid-range complexity embedded system is usually based on custom built templates and tools, or on commercially developed solutions with an operating system as a base. This paper presents possibilities for building customized templates that are operating system primitives. Since many embedded systems require only a few subsystems, and only basic operations from them, such subsystems could be built fast and then used as a base for new systems. Based on our experience while creating an educational operating system for embedded systems, we propose operating system primitives that can be created and then used as templates for creating new embedded systems.

            Paper Nr: 155
            Title:

            Mechanical Modeling of an Actuated Platform for Precision Pointing Control - Via Finite-element Analysis and Normal Mode Analysis

            Authors:

            Eric U. Diaz, Gerardo Zarate, Helen Boussalis and Khosrow Rad

            Abstract: A large, segmented space telescope requires high precision and accuracy in its mirror shape to obtain clear images. The Structures, Propulsion, and Control Engineering (SPACE) telescope testbed at the NASA sponsored University Research Center of excellence must maintain a pointing control accuracy of 2 arc seconds. A Peripheral Pointing Architecture (PPA) has been designed to demonstrate the Testbed’s pointing accuracy. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model of the PPA is developed. Normal mode analysis is performed to establish the PPA’s natural frequencies, mode shapes, and the mass and stiffness matrices. Utilizing the H-infinity controllers developed to achieve figure maintenance, the pointing control of the Testbed structure is achieved.

            Paper Nr: 172
            Title:

            Observer-based Adaptive Sliding Mode Control for a Pneumatic Servo System

            Authors:

            Kuo-Ming Chang and Tien-Tsai Kung

            Abstract: This paper combines an extended state observer (ESO) and adaptive sliding mode control to deal with the problem of nonlinear input dead-zone, unkonw system function, external distrubance and system states unmeasured in a pneumatic servo system. Firstly, an extended state observer is applied to estimate system state variables and uknown system nonlinear function contained the external disturbance, and an adaptive law is used to estimate unknown dead-zone parameters. Then, an observer-based adaptive sliding mode control can be derived for such a uncertain pneumatic servo system. Furturemore, the proposed control scheme in this paper is applied to a pneumatic positioning control experimental equipment and it is shown that the positioning accuracy with less than 0.05 can be obtained.

            Paper Nr: 178
            Title:

            Compensation of Unknown Input Dead Zone using Equivalent-Input-Disturbance Approach

            Authors:

            Liyu Ouyang, Jinhua She, Min Wu and Hiroshi Hashimoto

            Abstract: This paper considers the problem of the compensation of an unknown dead zone in the input of a plant. A new compensation method is presented based on the estimation of an equivalent input disturbance (EID). Unlike other methods, this method does not require the exact information of a dead zone. First, we consider the dead zone as an input-dependent disturbance and employ an EID estimator to estimate it. Then, we incorporate the estimate in the control input and compensate the effect of the dead zone almost completely. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the method.

            Paper Nr: 232
            Title:

            EKF based Data Fusion using Interval Analysis via Covariance Intersection, ML and a Class of OGK Covariance Estimators

            Authors:

            Samuel B. Lazarus, Antonios Tsourdos, João Sequeira and Al Savvaris

            Abstract: This paper addresses the comparison of robust estimation of a covariance matrix in vehicle navigation task to express the uncertainty when fusing information from multiple sensors. The EKF estimates are fused with the Interval Analysis estimates and further the results are fused using the Covariance Intersection (CI), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and a class of Orthogonal Gnanadesikan-Kettenring (OGK) estimators. The simulation results presented show that the variation between CI and OGK and the correlation between sensors are significant in the presence of outliers.

            Paper Nr: 263
            Title:

            Optimized Chipping Processes with a New Mechatronic Tool System - Application of Strain Gauge Sensors and Piezoelectric Actuators

            Authors:

            Franz Haas, Elke Nuspl and Manfred Pauritsch

            Abstract: The paper introduces a new measurement device which allows collecting the chipping force in three directions and additionally the process temperature. The apparatus consists of a specially designed tool holder with integrated strain gauges, the electronic measuring equipment and the evaluation software. During the first period a new device for research and development purposes has been designed, experiments on innovative materials are presented including the comparison with simulation results. The next step of the project incorporates the product development based on the previous experience with targets accuracy, cost effectiveness, reliability and the possibility of active damping of tool vibrations. To achieve the last mentioned demand a piezoelectric actuator is integrated into the tool shank and works against the vibration forces.

            Paper Nr: 270
            Title:

            Modified Evolutionary Strategies Algorithm in Linear Dynamic System Identification

            Authors:

            Ivan Ryzhikov and Eugene Semenkin

            Abstract: The approach to dynamic systems modelling in the form of the linear differential equation that uses only the system output and the control sample is presented. To develop a linear dynamic model as an ordinary differential equation we need to know the structure of differential equation and its order, so then it would be possible to identify parameters. It is common that measurements of the system output are distorted with a noise. In case of the non-uniform sample we would need a special output function approximation approach so the unit step function can be estimated. The dynamic system identification with an ordinary linear differential equation allows solving different control tasks, determining the system state with another control function.

            Paper Nr: 305
            Title:

            On the Temperature Control for a Test Case Short Pipe Network Central Heating System

            Authors:

            Nikolaos D. Kouvakas and Fotis N. Koumboulis

            Abstract: In the present paper the mathematical representation of a test case central heating system with a short pipng network, three radiators and one boiler heating two apartments is developed in the form of a nonlinear model. A linear dynamic controller achieving independent apartment temperature control and being unaffected from the external temperature is proposed. The controller is developed on the basis of a linear approximant. The closed loop performance is tested through simulations on the original nonlinear model.

            Area 4 - Industrial Engineering, Production and Management

            Short Papers
            Paper Nr: 17
            Title:

            Control of Variable Parametric Actuator in Building Temperature Regulation

            Authors:

            Todor Ionkov

            Abstract: Building management control systems provide occupants with comfortable temperature, humidity, etc. in different environments. Several control strategies have been introduced to control the temperature regulation, where an operating scheduling is pre-defined. In this context, standard PI control algorithms are adequate for the control of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. Due to the specificity of object dynamic, the uses of standard algorithms for regulation lead to fluctuations in angle actuator position. Achieving of energy saving control in these systems is correlated with minimisation of these actuator fluctuations. A novel nonlinear controller is proposed for high performance parametric variable motion control systems in actuators for Building Temperature Regulation. This control utilizes Lyapunov function to guarantee the convergence of the valve position tracking error from all possible initial conditions. Simulation results and performance comparison confirm that the proposed control scheme offers significantly improved performance in terms of the trajectory tracking ability to time-varying reference input, system control bandwidth, and robustness against external disturbances. The added integrator improves the system's robustness against modelling uncertainties and external disturbance, thus improving steady-state control accuracy.

            Paper Nr: 62
            Title:

            Assessing the Efficacy of Improvements in User Satisfaction for Mobile Applications - User Feedback from the Review Data

            Authors:

            Bomi Song, Woori Han and Yongtae Park

            Abstract: Monitoring user feedback is of central importance in the iterative and incremental appraoch to improvement of mobile applications. Knowledge from user review on mobile applications can be fruitful source of user feedback on firms’ effort to improve their mobile applications. This paper proposes an approach to assessing the efficacy of improvements in user satisfaction for mobile applications using user review data. Specifically, overall satisfaction score and frequencies of updated features in review data are compared before and after updates of mobile applications. We believe our method can facilitate utilizing user reviews to track user feedback and obtain useful knowledge in planning and managing updates of mobile applications, and serve as a starting point of more general model.

            Paper Nr: 209
            Title:

            Sloshing Suppression Control by using Physical Boundary Element Model and Predictive Control in Liquid Container Transfer System

            Authors:

            Hisashi Okatsuka, Ryota Shibuya, Kazuhiko Terashima, Yoshiyuki Noda and Yoshiki Matsuo

            Abstract: This paper presents sloshing suppression control of liquid transferred at a desirable-speed. In order to suppress sloshing, a mathematical model consisting of continuous equations and the pressure equation is used and the sloshing phenomena are analyzed by using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). Further, the BEM model is transformed into the state-variable model. The proposed model can estimate not only first-order mode sloshing but also higher-order mode sloshing and predict the future behavior of liquid level more precisely. Moreover, sloshing is suppressed by using Model Predictive Control (MPC).We were able to transfer the container while minimizing sloshing and maintaining a desirable speed.

            Paper Nr: 211
            Title:

            Process-oriented Approach to Verification in Engineering

            Authors:

            Ekaterina Auer, Roger Cuypers and Wolfram Luther

            Abstract: Common verification and validation methodologies suggest using verification benchmarks in the cases where no theoretical proof of the model and algorithm accuracy is possible and interpreting the outcome of the process of interest on these. In this paper, we propose to shift the focus on the process itself. Helped by appropriate questionnaires, users are urged to subdivide their processes into smaller tasks and to classify the input/output data and algorithms, which allows us to assign a certain initial verification degree to the (sub-) process from a recently proposed four-tier hierarchy. After that, the initial degree can be improved as well as uncertainty quantified by with the help of a selection of specialized interoperable data types and tools. Besides, we address issues of software quality and user support by describing a comparison system for verified initial value problem solvers.

            Paper Nr: 298
            Title:

            Productivity Improvement through Layout Redesign - A Lean Approach Case Study

            Authors:

            Wa-Muzemba Anselm Tshibangu and Steve Berlinski

            Abstract: This paper explains how a small-size company located in the western New York region has used a lean approach to redesign its operational layout and eliminate unnecessary transportation moves to deal with financial turmoil and survive global competition. Although this is a true real world case study, the company’s name is referred to as West City Vacuum Forming Inc. (WCVF Inc.) throughout the paper to protect the company privacy as they are still in business today. A couple of years ago when WCVF Inc. lost two of its major customers to competition and technology changes, the company sales were tragically impacted and severe measures of cost reductions were urgently needed in order to maintain the company in business. WCVF Inc. then decided to retrench and re-evaluate its manufacturing practices. As a result of this self assessment effort, drastic measures including a significant downsizing of the workforce and a consolidation of the space floor were addressed to save the company from financial turmoil. This paper specifically analyzes the floor consolidation aspect because it resulted into a new configuration of operational layout that improved WCVF Inc. operations, productivity, and material flow by eliminating unnecessary transportation activities. Other benefits recorded include annual operational costs saving of approximating $50,000 and a reduction in cycle times in the order of 4.8 days for some products, representing a cut of 5%.

            Paper Nr: 358
            Title:

            The Optimal Gasoline Blending into Romanian Refinery - Case Study

            Authors:

            Cristian Patrascioiu and Nicolae Nicoleta

            Abstract: The paper presents the research into Romanian industrial in line gasoline blending. The paper is structured in three parts. First part presents an industrial bending system of a Romanian refinery. The second part contents a research of the blending mathematical model for petroleum products. The last part is a case study, regarding an industrial problem of the gasoline blending in a Romanian refinery. The study has reported similitude and differences between the optimal solution calculated by Blend Optimization and Supervisory System (BOSS) and the optimal solution obtained by using the author’s model.

            Posters
            Paper Nr: 87
            Title:

            Business Process Development for Industrial Cluster

            Authors:

            Taivo Kangilaski

            Abstract: Small production companies frequently have only limited amount of customers, especially in country sides. To have more orders and to be more competitive, they need to cooperate and form Industrial Clusters. To manage Industrial Cluster, there should be firm Quality Management System. The current article proposes approach about handling that complicity, which is related to the Industrial Cluster Management.

            Paper Nr: 290
            Title:

            An Application of Goal Programming Technique for Reconfiguration of Transfer Lines

            Authors:

            Fatme Makssoud, Olga Battaïa and Alexandre Dolgui

            Abstract: In this paper, the reconfiguration problem of transfer machining lines is addressed. This problem appears when an existing line has to be adapted for the production of a new or modified product. The objective is to minimize the reconfiguration line cost. The compatibility constraints between old and new operations have to be taken into account. Therefore, a compromise between introducing new equipment and reusing old one is to be found. A goal programming model for this optimization problem is developed. This mathematical model minimizes the reconfiguration cost of transfer line as the primary objective and maximizes the reusability of old equipment as the second objective.

            Paper Nr: 341
            Title:

            A Control Strategy for Reducing Fuel Consumption in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

            Authors:

            Babici Leandru Corneliu Cezar and Alexandru Onea

            Abstract: Hybrid electric vehicles are one of the most suitable alternative for conventional automobiles. This paper describes a control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, and to maintain a reasonable state of charge (SOC), at the end of the drive cycle. The main goal is to split the requested power from the driver between the internal combustion engine, and the electric motor, such way to decrease the fuel consumption, and to maintain the dynamic performances. The algorithm was tested using Matlab Simulink and ADVISOR interface. The results include statistical comparisons of the standard drive cycles using default model and the modified control strategy.

            Paper Nr: 345
            Title:

            Observability of Transportation Systems - A Methodology for Reliability Analysis in Logistics and Manufacturing

            Authors:

            Jan Pinkowski and Axel Hahn

            Abstract: Real world events are observed by sensors since decades, for instance in the logistics where packages are identified and tracked. This information result in an information flow. This information flow is used to control the physical material flow. Hence, the information flow is a digital representation of the physical material flow. However, to guarantee that the digital representation is in alignment to the physical world is a challenging task. Especially for scenarios with manual operations, the representation is vulnerable for errors. This paper proposes a generic approach to assure consistency between digital and physical world. The paper presents a methodology to model the monitoring of physical entities and to analyse the model to evaluate the risk of unreliable digital representation.

            Paper Nr: 349
            Title:

            Towards Manufacturing Execution Systems for the Food and Beverage Packaging Industry

            Authors:

            Stefano Caselli, Michele Pattera and Massimo Ricci

            Abstract: In this paper, we describe the issues faced in bringing advanced supervisory and control concepts in the fragmented food and beverage packaging industry. Although packaging equipment manufacturers must cope with tight cost constraints, heterogenous machines, and customers’ requests for specialized features, we take the position that time is ready for bringing more advanced features such as automated production flow and full production supervision even in this domain of consumer oriented and highly personalized products. Manufacturing Execution Systems, which have been introduced with success in other manufacturing areas, can be applied in food and beverage packaging taking advantage from recently proposed standards. This effort requires to supplement the software base of existing machines with an interface layer ensuring interoperability according to the existing standards. By consolidating these standards and adopting good design practices, flexible integration, supervision and control of packaging lines can be obtained.

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